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May 28th

1922 A meeting is called at Kaulgarh by Karam Singh Gargaj group to reform the Jholichuks.

1948 SGPC came under the control of Congress Sikhs.

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May 29th

1606 Martyrdom, Fifth Patshah, Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

==> GURU ARJAN DEV (1563-1606) Guru Arjan, the 'Prince of Martyrs' and the 'Prophet of Peace', proffered his precious life to nurture the glory that was to be the Sikh Panth. The Fifth Master's life was marked by divine bliss and sublime sacrifices, born of a sweet acceptance of God's Will. Gifted with a quintessential poetic afflatus, and immeasurable imaginative sympathies, the Guru gave the movement of Sikhism a definite direction, perspective and program. He made the new faith coeval or coextensive with the whole gamut of existence and raised its exquisite edifice on values for which there is neither death nor change.

Guru Arjan Dev adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from Sept. 1, 1581 to May 30, 1606. Born at Goindwal on April 15, 1563, he was the youngest and noblest son of Guru Ram Das and Mata Bibi Bhani. On 23 Hadh sunmat 1636, he married Ganga Devi, daughter of Krishan Chand of Mau village. He had an innate poetic sensibility which was exquisitely displayed in the epistles that he sent to his father from Lahore. They are deeply expressive of the pangs of separation and the exuberance of Love. The Fourth Master's decision to make Guru Arjan his spiritual heir was bitterly opposed by Prithvi Chand who contended that being the eldest son, he alone was entitled to the Guruship. Thus, he could never reconcile himself to his younger brother's installation as Guru.

Under Guru Arjan Dev the Sikh movement registered great progress. In sunmat 1645, he cemented the Santokhsar sarovar. Further, the Guru not only completed the construction of the Sarovars started at 'Guru Ka Chak' by his predecessor but also constructed two more Sarovars. He had the Harmandar built in the middle of Amritsar Sarovar and invited a celebrated Muslim divine, Mian Mir, to lay its foundation stone in sunmat 1645. Remarkable for its architectural and aesthetic beauty and unique in its conception, the temple with its four doors symbolizes the inborn equality of all mankind.

Indeed, it is open to all the four castes without any discrimination. Thus, the Guru sought a dissolution of all castes and creed distinctions. Unlike the Hindu shrines that are built on a high plinth, the Harmandar (the Temple of God) was built on a level lower than that of the surrounding areas, thereby making it imperative for the devotees to go down the steps in a spirit of true humility. In addition, the towns of Tarn Taran and Kartarpur flourished under the Guru's tutelage. He had a magnificent tank built at Tarn Taran (pool of salvation) in sunmat 1647 and a Bavalli constructed at Lahore. in sunmat 1651, he established the town of Kartarpur Nagar (Dist. Jullander) and Ramsar in sunmat 1659-60.

Guru Arjan undertook a tour of the Punjab to preach Sikhism. He rationalized the institution of the masands and ordained that every Sikh should voluntarily donate a tenth of his income raised by the sweat of his brow for religious purposes. The masands collected the offerings thus made and deposited them in the Guru's treasury. Again, when the Punjab was in the grip of drought and famine, Guru Arjan persuaded the Emperor Akbar to remit the land revenue for that year.

The most epochal achievement, however, of Guru Arjan was the compilation of the Adi Granth. The Guru devoted three years from 1601 to 1604 to the completion of the sublime project. He studied thoroughly the entire treasure of Gurbani, collected the hymns and psalms of the previous Gurus, and screened the utterances of the bhakts collected by the previous Gurus. He not only put the entire Bani together but also compiled it systematically under different ragas. Guru Arjan's genius for compilation is eminently projected by the vars included in the Adi Granth. He has added shlokas to the Bani of all the earlier Gurus in order to elucidate the deeper meanings. To compile the outpourings of his predecessors and the, Bhakts under various ragas (musical measures) obviously demanded an unflattering grasp of the musical measures. Besides being a notable compiler, Guru Arjan was also a gifted poet. More than half of the holy Granth consists of his own utterances. They comprise 2218 verses. Thus his work exceeds that of the other 35 inspired poets whose compositions are enshrined in the Guru Granth.

The essential message of Guru Arjan's hymns is meditation on Nam. The Guru has lucidly expatiated on the concept of brahmgiani (the enlightened soul). According to him, this enlightenment can be attained only through meditation on the Lord and the Guru's grace. In depicting the attributes of the brahmgiani, he has compared him to a lotus flower which immersed in mud and water is yet pure and beautiful. Without ill-will or enmity he is forever courageous and calm.

Guru Arjan set a fine personal example by living up to his own concept of a brahmgiani. All his holy compositions are characterized by humility and tenderness. He seeks the grace of God for the fulfillment of all kinds of human needs. With the compilation of the first volume of the Adi Granth, the Sikh religion registered greater unity and identity. The Sikhs now owned a unique Book or Granth of their own, and thus acquired a distinct and separate entity. Guru Arjan installed the holy Granth at the Harmandar and appointed Baba Budha Ji as the first Granthi of Harmandar Sahib. Thus, Amritsar became the most significant centre of the Sikh faith and the Sikhs emerged as a new and powerful community.

During the period between Guru Nanak and Guru Arjan, there was no conflict between the Sikhs and the Mughal Kings. Emperor Akbar was in particular a man of liberal views and he respected the ideals of the Sikh movement. But, with his death and the following enthronement of Jehangir, there was a total reversal of policy and change of attitude.

Jehangir's own writings reveal that he considered the spread of Sikhism as a positive threat to Islam. In a moment of fanatic frenzy, he characterized Sikhism as a 'shop of falsehood' and declared that he would extirpate it at the earliest opportunity. Thus he set about with a fanatical zeal to carry out his threat: and he trumped up the charge of treason against the Guru. With the complicity of the officials, Jehangir had the Guru soon imprisoned and tortured to death at Lahore in 1606. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan engendered a wave of shock and indignation among the Sikhs. No single event till then had so profoundly brought home to them the necessity of the sword. It is therefore not surprising that under the Sixth Master, Guru Hargobind they were militarized and prepared to face the Mugal might squarely. Thus emerged a new epoch in the history of Sikhism which led to a synthesis between Bhakti and Shakti (wordly power). Guru Arjan was the first Sikh Guru, who by his martyrdom lent to Sikhism a strength and solidarity that it had never known before. As desired by the Fifth Master, Guru Hargobind was ordained Guru in 1606, and, he guided and shaped the destiny of the Sikh community until 1645.

-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 80)

Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh Guru Granth Ratnavali, page 90

1606 Shashter Dharan, Sixth Patshah, Guru Hargobind Ji.

1712 Badshah Jahandar Shah seeks reinforcements to deal with Sikhs.

1923 SGPC again declares the Babbar Akalis as anti-Panthic.

1960 The first batch courted arrest for Punjabi Suba agitation.

1981 The Hindus took out anti-Sikh procession at Amritsar.

The Hindus took out anti-Sikh procession at Amritsar where filthy and provocative slogans were raised by them. This procession was in response to the planned procession by Sikhs on May 31, 1981. During this procession, 10,000 armed unruly Hindus raised abusive slogans against the Sikhs and Sikh symbols. One of the Hindu slogans asked the Sikhs to get out of India: as India belonged to the Hindus. Besides provoking, insulting and vulgar slogan raising, the Hindu processionists attacked some of the Sikh buildings and wounded a large number of Sikh passersby.

-Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119.

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May 30th

1606 Martydom, Patshahi Fifth, Guru Arjan Dev Ji in Lahore. Guru Arjan Dev Ji is tortured to death in Lahore.

Fifth Patshah, Guru Arjun Dev Ji, with wounds blistering on his body, hands and feet, was thrown into river Ravi near Lahore, wherein he disappeared. Guru Arjan's martyrdom is the first of its kind in the history of the region. It caused great resentment and indignation among the general body of Hindus and Muslims, apart from the Sikhs. At the young age of 43, he was the first martyr of Sikh history. He was tortured to death by the orders of Emperor Jehagir and at the hands of Chandhu Shah, a diwan (minister) in the finance ministry of Delhi. Guru worked tirelessly for 25 years to transform the young Sikh movement into a national religion, later to become a world religion. In this period a large number of devotees became Sikhs. But this period also witnessed a significant increase in the number of people who became enemies of the Guru and the Sikh movement. These people could not tolerate the success of the mission of the Guru. They became jealous of him. The death of the Guru was a result of a conspiracy of five common enemies. they included:

PRITHI CHAND and his son MEHRBAN: Prithi Chand was the elder brother of the guru and Mehrban was his nephew. They wanted to get the Guru Killed so that Prithi Chand could take over the Guruship.

CHANDU SHAH: became Guru's enemy when Guru refused to accept his offer to marry his daughter to Guru's son, Hargobind.

SULAHI KHAN: a Mughal officer of Batala who was against conversion of Muslims to Sikhism. He wanted to eliminate the Guru to halt such conversions.

SHEIKH AHMED FARUQUI SIRHINDI: a leader of a Muslim sect who had declared Guru Arjan as a "kafir" (infidel) and wanted his death. He was a revivalist of Islam.

EMPEROR JEHANGIR: After the death of Emperor Akbar, a war of succession was fought between Prince Salim (later known as Jehangir) and his young son Khusrau. Prince Salim became the emperor and Khusrau was first blinded and then put to death. Before his death, Khusrau escaped and took shelter with the Guru and also took some financial help from him to procure food and shelter for survival. Jehangir, declared this act of the Guru as treason. He had already been briefed by Prithi Chand, Mehrban, Sulahi Khan, Chandu Shah and Sheikh Ahmed Faruqui regrading Guru's missionary work which they called as anti-muslim. Jehangir was looking for an excuse to punish the Guru. This act of the Guru gave him ammunition to eliminate him.

-Ref. "The Sikh Religion and The Sikh People," by Dr. S.S. Kapor, Hemkunt Press, New Delhi, 1992.

==> GURU ARJAN DEV (1563-1606) Guru Arjan, the 'Prince of Martyrs' and the 'Prophet of Peace', proffered his precious life to nurture the glory that was to be the Sikh Panth. The Fifth Master's life was marked by divine bliss and sublime sacrifices, born of a sweet acceptance of God's Will. Gifted with a quintessential poetic afflatus, and immeasurable imaginative sympathies, the Guru gave the movement of Sikhism a definite direction, perspective and program. He made the new faith coeval or coextensive with the whole gamut of existence and raised its exquisite edifice on values for which there is neither death nor change.

Guru Arjan Dev adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from Sept. 1, 1581 to May 30, 1606. Born at Goindwal on April 15, 1563, he was the youngest and noblest son of Guru Ram Das and Mata Bibi Bhani. On 23 Hadh sunmat 1636, he married Ganga Devi, daughter of Krishan Chand of Mau village. He had an innate poetic sensibility which was exquisitely displayed in the epistles that he sent to his father from Lahore. They are deeply expressive of the pangs of separation and the exuberance of Love. The Fourth Master's decision to make Guru Arjan his spiritual heir was bitterly opposed by Prithvi Chand who contended that being the eldest son, he alone was entitled to the Guruship. Thus, he could never reconcile himself to his younger brother's installation as Guru.

Under Guru Arjan Dev the Sikh movement registered great progress. In sunmat 1645, he cemented the Santokhsar sarovar. Further, the Guru not only completed the construction of the Sarovars started at 'Guru Ka Chak' by his predecessor but also constructed two more Sarovars. He had the Harmandar built in the middle of Amritsar Sarovar and invited a celebrated Muslim divine, Mian Mir, to lay its foundation stone in sunmat 1645. Remarkable for its architectural and aesthetic beauty and unique in its conception, the temple with its four doors symbolizes the inborn equality of all mankind.

Indeed, it is open to all the four castes without any discrimination. Thus, the Guru sought a dissolution of all castes and creed distinctions. Unlike the Hindu shrines that are built on a high plinth, the Harmandar (the Temple of God) was built on a level lower than that of the surrounding areas, thereby making it imperative for the devotees to go down the steps in a spirit of true humility. In addition, the towns of Tarn Taran and Kartarpur flourished under the Guru's tutelage. He had a magnificent tank built at Tarn Taran (pool of salvation) in sunmat 1647 and a Bavalli constructed at Lahore. in sunmat 1651, he established the town of Kartarpur Nagar (Dist. Jullander) and Ramsar in sunmat 1659-60.

Guru Arjan undertook a tour of the Punjab to preach Sikhism. He rationalized the institution of the masands and ordained that every Sikh should voluntarily donate a tenth of his income raised by the sweat of his brow for religious purposes. The masands collected the offerings thus made and deposited them in the Guru's treasury. Again, when the Punjab was in the grip of drought and famine, Guru Arjan persuaded the Emperor Akbar to remit the land revenue for that year.

The most epochal achievement, however, of Guru Arjan was the compilation of the Adi Granth. The Guru devoted three years from 1601 to 1604 to the completion of the sublime project. He studied thoroughly the entire treasure of Gurbani, collected the hymns and psalms of the previous Gurus, and screened the utterances of the bhakts collected by the previous Gurus. He not only put the entire Bani together but also compiled it systematically under different ragas. Guru Arjan's genius for compilation is eminently projected by the vars included in the Adi Granth. He has added shlokas to the Bani of all the earlier Gurus in order to elucidate the deeper meanings. To compile the outpourings of his predecessors and the, Bhakts under various ragas (musical measures) obviously demanded an unflattering grasp of the musical measures. Besides being a notable compiler, Guru Arjan was also a gifted poet. More than half of the holy Granth consists of his own utterances. They comprise 2218 verses. Thus his work exceeds that of the other 35 inspired poets whose compositions are enshrined in the Guru Granth.

The essential message of Guru Arjan's hymns is meditation on Nam. The Guru has lucidly expatiated on the concept of brahmgiani (the enlightened soul). According to him, this enlightenment can be attained only through meditation on the Lord and the Guru's grace. In depicting the attributes of the brahmgiani, he has compared him to a lotus flower which immersed in mud and water is yet pure and beautiful. Without ill-will or enmity he is forever courageous and calm.

Guru Arjan set a fine personal example by living up to his own concept of a brahmgiani. All his holy compositions are characterized by humility and tenderness. He seeks the grace of God for the fulfillment of all kinds of human needs. With the compilation of the first volume of the Adi Granth, the Sikh religion registered greater unity and identity. The Sikhs now owned a unique Book or Granth of their own, and thus acquired a distinct and separate entity. Guru Arjan installed the holy Granth at the Harmandar and appointed Baba Budha Ji as the first Granthi of Harmandar Sahib. Thus, Amritsar became the most significant centre of the Sikh faith and the Sikhs emerged as a new and powerful community.

During the period between Guru Nanak and Guru Arjan, there was no conflict between the Sikhs and the Mughal Kings. Emperor Akbar was in particular a man of liberal views and he respected the ideals of the Sikh movement. But, with his death and the following enthronement of Jehangir, there was a total reversal of policy and change of attitude.

Jehangir's own writings reveal that he considered the spread of Sikhism as a positive threat to Islam. In a moment of fanatic frenzy, he characterized Sikhism as a 'shop of falsehood' and declared that he would extirpate it at the earliest opportunity. Thus he set about with a fanatical zeal to carry out his threat: and he trumped up the charge of treason against the Guru. With the complicity of the officials, Jehangir had the Guru soon imprisoned and tortured to death at Lahore in 1606. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan engendered a wave of shock and indignation among the Sikhs. No single event till then had so profoundly brought home to them the necessity of the sword. It is therefore not surprising that under the Sixth Master, Guru Hargobind they were militarized and prepared to face the Mugal might squarely. Thus emerged a new epoch in the history of Sikhism which led to a synthesis between Bhakti and Shakti (wordly power). Guru Arjan was the first Sikh Guru, who by his martyrdom lent to Sikhism a strength and solidarity that it had never known before. As desired by the Fifth Master, Guru Hargobind was ordained Guru in 1606, and, he guided and shaped the destiny of the Sikh community until 1645.

-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 80) Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh Guru Granth Ratnavali, page 90

1710 Bahadur Shah called for volunteers for Jehad against the Sikhs.

Bahadhur Shah was appraised of the news of Banad Singh's exploits. Taking this into view the poignancy of the situation, he made up with the Rajputs and called for volunteers for "Jehad", holy war, against the Sikhs. He ordered the mobilisation of all available forces, rallied Bundhela Rajputs against the Sikhs and himself personally proceeded in person to the Punjab.

1813 Raja Karam Singh Patiala ascended the throne of Patiala State.

==> PATIALA FAMILY traces its descent to Maharaja Gaj, founder of the town Gazni (now in Afghanistan) in the first quarter of the 16th century. His descendents, Maharawal Jaisal, founded the State of Jaisalmer and his grand son, Rao Hans Raj, is considered the ancestor of Patiala family. However, Tawarikh Guru Khalsa written by Giani Gian Singh, traces the Patiala family descent to Chaudhri Phul, a Sidhu Jat in "Malwa country" and the Chaudhri belonged to the 23rd generation of the family of Bhatti Rajputs. When Bhim Mal came to Punjab in 1237 he helped Shahabuddin Gauri, in his attack on Delhi and in lieu of that, he was given the area comprising of Hissar, Sirsa, etc. In 1251, he built a fort in Hissar town. After his death, his son Jawand Rao succeeded and had 21 sons. According to Giani Gian Singh, Chaudhri Phul, son of Chaudhri Rup Chand, belonged to the family tree belonging to the descendents of Jawand Rao. When Guru Har Rai Patshah visited Malwa in 1702 B.K., Chaudhri Kala, brother of Chaudhri Rup Chand, brought his two nephews, Phul and Sandali to the Guru. On instructions of their uncle, who was acting as their guardian, both Phul and Sandali started beating their bellies and when Guru Sahib asked the reason, Chaudhri Kala explained that his nephews wanted to sariate their hunger. At that time, Guru Sahib blessed and ordained that the Phul family would reign for a considerable period of time and that it would feed lakhs of people. Chaudhri Phul died in 1745 B.K. and was succeeded by his two sons, Talok Chand and Ram Chand, who were introduced to amrit by Guru Gobind Singh in 1761 and were subsequently named Talok Singh and Ram Singh. Because of their great services to Guru Sahib, the two brothers were blessed and the Guru ordained "My house is your house and I am much pleased with you". Maharaj Ram Singh, who effectively controlled the areas surrounding Patiala, was murdered in 1771 B.K. (1741) at the hands of Chain Singh, Uggar Sain and Biru. He was succeeded by six sons, Baba Ala Singh proved to be the most dominating and promising. He was introduced to amrit by Nawab Kapur Singh.

The Patiala family attained prominence during Baba Ala Singh reign, who founded the State of Patiala by defeating the neighboring chieftains. Emperor Shah Jahan conferred the title "Raja" on Baba Ala Singh.

Unfortunately, the Patiala family often acted against interest of the Sikhs. They were often concerned with propagating their own family business interests firs and foremost. Among the damage they did to the Panth was the reinforcement of the Brahminincal tradition of Nirmalae Sikhs and in total disrespect to GurSikh women many Patialites kept countless Ranis, performed anti Sikhi parades, etc. When Gadarites were orgainzing in US and Baba Khadak Singh was pursuing Keys Morcha and Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh was organinsing Rakab Ganj protest, Patialites were busy bootlicking British reprentatives. They offered many naive young rural Sikhs for deployment in Greece, North Africa and Europe, who eventually sacrificed their lives for a war they had absolutely nothing to do with. The Sikhs continously failed to recognize Patialites and remained loyal to them, even during partition talks (when Patiala family's daughter was to be wed with Dr. Ambedkar's nephew and 100 million of Dalits who were going to embrace Sikhism were thrown out by a series of calculated malicious events).

For these reasons and many more, PATIALA FAMILY were never considered a part of the Khalsa Misls and remained as fringe elements to GurSikh society.

-Ref. The Illustrated History of the Sikhs (1947-78), by Gur Rattan Pal Singh.

1924 7th and 8th Jathas, each of 500 Akalis courted arrest after reaching Jaito.

==> WHERE IS JAITO? A village under Nabha, which falls on the Bathinda-Ferozpur railway line. It is 96 miles from Lahore and 17 miles from Bathinda.

WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JAITO? On this place situated near a fort, is a historical Gurudwara of Guru Gobind Singh Patshah. Maharaja Hira Singh constructed the beautiful buildings of this Gurudwara. The sarowar is popularly known as "Gangsar". About a mile and a half north of Jaito is "Tibhi Sahib" Gurudwara, where Guru Gobind Singh Patshah used to organize and participate in the evening recitation of Rehras. Both Gurudwaras have extensive land sanctioned to it by the Nabha rulers. Additionally, extensive financial resources are made available on an annual basis from the Nabha rulers and the surrounding villages. A maela celebration is held every 7th of Pooh month (Dec.-Jan.) and Katak (Oct.-Nov.) Puranmashi. Jaito's markets are well renowned. People come from far distances to buy and sell their herds.

WHY AKALIS COURTED ARREST? The key issue involved was resoration of Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha. Maharaja of Nabha, well-known for his pro-Tat Khalsa Proclivities, had a dispute with Maharaja of Patiala, known for this pro-government role. Although Maharaja of Nabha had absolutely no dispute with the government, as a result of mediation, he was forced to abdicate in July 1923. Col. Michin, with the help of troops and armoured cars, took the Maharaja by surprise on July 8, 1923 and taunted him with the query, "Where is that Akali?" The news of deposition by the government raised a strom of protest against the Government's interefernce in Nabha and was decsribed as a challenge to the Akali movement. As a result tensions mounted. The Akalis, in defiance of state orders, continued to hold diwan indefinitely. The Nabha police in order to arrest all the Akalis, including the one reading the holy Granth Sahib, was said to have disrupted the Akhand Path on Sept. 14, 1923. This dispute took such a tragic shape and got so inflames by Feb. 21, 1924 that several people lost their lives. After sixteen shaheedi jathas apart from one from Bengal and another from Canada, the agitation process was completed two years later, on August 6, 1925, after the concurrent bhog of 101 Akand Paaths.

-Ref. Mahan Kosh "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995

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May 31st

1981 Sikh procession to seek Holy City status for Amritsar.

The Sikhs brought out a procession to demand Holy City status for Amritsar. More than 25,000 Sikhs joined the procession. To quote a Hindu newspaper, the Tribune: Until 29 May it seemed that only 500 to 1,000 Sikhs would join the Sikh procession on Sunday when all the shops are closed in the city. Following yesterday's massive Hindu procession the number will be very high. This procession was a direct result of unfilled promises for the declaration of Amritsar as a Holy City. The SGPC chief, G. S. Tohra,' had met with the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, on September 24, 1980.

1984 Sri Guru Granth, intact in Rumalas, and Palki Sahib was burned in Patiala.

1986 In 1986 the International Sikh Organization (ISO) was established to educate the public and the U.S. Congress about the Sikh religion, the violations of human rights by the Indian government, India's genocide against the Sikhs, and the Sikh struggle for an independence. The Council of Khalistan was established on October 7, 1987, when Khalistan declared its independence.

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June 1st

1748 Small Holocaust that saw 10,000 Sikhs massacared in a single day. At least 10,000 Sikhs were massacred by Yahiya Khan and Lakhpat Rai, who had taken vow to avenge the death of his brother by annihilating the Sikhs.

==> SMALL HOLOCAUST - Diwan Lakhpat Rai, a katri of Kalanoar, was the Chief Minister to the Governor of Lahore, YayahKhan. When his troublemaker brother, Jaspat, was killed by Sikhs near Badoki Gusayia village, he unleased a campaign of terror against the Sikhs to avenge the death of his brother. Jaspat Rai was actually killed in a skirmish with a Sikh outfit. However, Lakhpat Rai issued orders to shoot the Sikhs at sight. For some period, Lakhpat Rai even assumed completed control of Lahore, under orders of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lakhpat Rai attacked Sikhs at Kahnoowal jungles and ordered to set the whole jungle on fire. Baba Deep Singh was among the Sikhs who escaped and subsequently fought back at the Beaas River bank, and finally reaching Malwa. This incident culminated in what is common known as the "Chotta Ghalughara" (small genocide) in Sikh history.

Subsequently, MeerManu arrested Lakhpat Rai and handed him over to Diwan KodahMal, who in turn handed his to the Sikhs. Sikhs kept him in jail for six months and eventually killed him in sunmat 1805.

-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 1056)

1813 Maharaja Ranjit Singh obtained Kohinoor from Shahsuja Amir of Kabul.

Shah Shujah, Amir of Kabul, reentered Lahore under Sikh protection. Maharaja Ranjit Singh demanded Kohinoor from him as promised by Wafa Begum of Shah Shujah. Shah Shujah grudgingly parted with Koh-inoor that originally weighed 787 carats, but was cut to 280 carats to enhance its fire and brilliance, and later recut' to 186. The Kohinoor (which means "mountain of light") was part of an enameled armlet worn by Maharaja Ranjit Singh The Kohinoor eventually landed with the British after Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death.

1924 7th shahidi Jatha of 500 valiant Akali Satyagrahies started their march for Jaito from Takhat Sri Kaesgadh Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, under the leadership of Sardar Pratap Singh Khurdpuri.

==> WHERE IS JAITO? A village under Nabha, which falls on the Bathinda-Ferozpur railway line. It is 96 miles from Lahore and 17 miles from Bathinda.

WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JAITO? On this place situated near a fort, is a historical Gurudwara of Guru Gobind Singh Patshah. Maharaja Hira Singh constructed the beautiful buildings of this Gurudwara. The sarowar is popularly known as "Gangsar". About a mile and a half north of Jaito is "Tibhi Sahib" Gurudwara, where Guru Gobind Singh Patshah used to organize and participate in the evening recitation of Rehras. Both Gurudwaras have extensive land sanctioned to it by the Nabha rulers. Additionally, extensive financial resources are made available on an annual basis from the Nabha rulers and the surrounding villages. A maela celebration is held every 7th of Pooh month (Dec.-Jan.) and Katak (Oct.-Nov.) Puranmashi. Jaito's markets are well renowned. People come from far distances to buy and sell their herds.

WHY AKALIS COURTED ARREST? The key issue involved was resoration of Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha. Maharaja of Nabha, well-known for his pro-Tat Khalsa Proclivities, had a dispute with Maharaja of Patiala, known for this pro-government role. Although Maharaja of Nabha had absolutely no dispute with the government, as a result of mediation, he was forced to abdicate in July 1923. Col. Michin, with the help of troops and armoured cars, took the Maharaja by surprise on July 8, 1923 and taunted him with the query, "Where is that Akali?" The news of deposition by the government raised a strom of protest against the Government's interefernce in Nabha and was decsribed as a challenge to the Akali movement. As a result tensions mounted. The Akalis, in defiance of state orders, continued to hold diwan indefinitely. The Nabha police in order to arrest all the Akalis, including the one reading the holy Granth Sahib, was said to have disrupted the Akhand Path on Sept. 14, 1923. This dispute took such a tragic shape and got so inflames by Feb. 21, 1924 that several people lost their lives. After sixteen shaheedi jathas apart from one from Bengal and another from Canada, the agitation process was completed two years later, on August 6, 1925, after the concurrent bhog of 101 Akand Paaths.

-Ref. Mahan Kosh

"The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995

1940 Allihgadh Prachar conference held. 25,000 Amritdhari GurSikhs attended.

1973 Akali Dal launched Karnal agitation for civil liberties.

1984 Black Day in Sikh history - CRPF and BSF fired upon and damaged Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar.

CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) and BSF (Border Security Force) starting firing from every direction on to the Golden Temple compelx. Firing started around 12:40 AM without any incitement from the other side and stopped after 7 hours, around 8:15 PM. 11 people died in this firing. Mehnga Singh of Babbar Khalsa International was the first martyr of this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib was fired upon which left 32 major marks on the Golden dome itself. Curfew was imposed in the city of Amritsar. This day marked the first day of Operation Bluestar and came to be known as the Black day in Sikh History. The last time, Darbar Sahib was attacked by Ahmed Shah Abdali almost 222 yrs earlier. However, that was an attack by a foriegner, while this was an attack by our own government (or was it!). The members of Shromani Committee launched a strong protest against the firing. They even tried to reach the President of India. However, every time their calls were ignored by the President's office with lame excuses.

==> BLUESTAR OPERATION is the code name for the June 1984 attack on Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, by the Indian Armed Forces. This attack was conducted under the pretext of flushing out terrorists but was designed for maximum damage. The attack took place on the day of Guru Arjan Dev Patshah's Shahadat Gurpurab observations. Further this operation was sanctioned under the direct orders of Indira Gandhi (then prime minister) and Zail Singh (then President). The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian Armed Forces using tanks, helicopters, and other heavy artillery, under the command of Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Sri Akal Takhat was desecrated during this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib sustained at least 300 bullet holes. Thousands of innocent people were murdered in cold blood. Their fault? They were attending the Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The brave GurSikh soldiers in the Akal Takhat, numbering about 250, gave extremely tough resistance to the Indian army. However, their resistance was no match to the large number of tanks, helicopters, bombs, and other heavy artillery that destroyed the Akal Takhat. The whole Sikh nation rose as a whole to protest against this ghastly attack. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Many gave their lives in attempts to reach for Darbar Sahib's protection. All roads to Amritsar were blocked. Every Sikh approaching these blockades were asked to remove their kirpan and turban. Those refusing were immediately killed or arrested. Anyone with blue or saffron turbans were particularly targeted and killed. Those arrested were blind folded and their hands tied behind their backs with their own turbans. Arrested Sikhs were packed in groups of 60-70 in small rooms with liitle room for any mobility.

In protest, many respected Sikhs returned their Padam Bushan medals/honors bestowed upon them by the Indian government and sacrificed their high positions. Several Sikh Army personal deserted their posts in protest and marched straight to protect Darbar Sahib. However, Indira Ghandhi did receive retribution for her black deeds on Oct. 31st, that same year.

For detailed description of events surrounding this attack, readers are referred to the following:

Gurbhagat Singh, "Kommi Ajadi Wal - Panjab Tae PunjabiSabhiyachar Da Bhawish," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Major Singh, "Punjab Khuni Dahakae Di Ghatha,"Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Naraen Singh, "Kau Kito Visahau?" Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-003-8, 1986, 1990, 1992.

Naraen Singh, "Sikh Vira Nu Haluna," Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-085-2, 1987, 1989, 1993.

Harbir Singh Bhanwer (Tribune reporter), "Diary de Panne," This book is in Punjabi. It is hard to come by. I found it to be most authoritative books on this event. Mr. Bhanwer was the person who provided quite a bit of basic information to Mark Tully and Mr. Jacob for their book "Amritsar: Indira Gandhi's Last Battle."

Dr. Mohinder Singh, "Blue Star Ghalughara," This book was published in 1991 (several years after Dairy de Panne), but is more detailed.

Jathedar Kirpal Singh, "Saka Neela Tara." This book is written by thim when he was the Jathedar of Akal Takhat. I have not read it, but I think it has extremely valuable information.

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June 2nd

1818 Maharaja Ranjit Singh's forces annexed the province of Multan into the Sikh State, after several years of fierce battles.

==> CONQUEST OF MULTAN (1818): The nawab of Multan, Muzaffar Khan had agreed to pay tribute to the Khalsa army. He had also made a resolution and had agreed that he will not conspire against the Khalsa Darbar. Later, however he gave asylum to Raes Ahmad Khan of Jhang and plotted against the Khalsa army with Kutubdin. He broke his word and never paid tribute on time. As a result the forces of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Muzaffar Khan who was ready to defend himself with an army of 20,000 and a large number of holy warriors (mujahuddins). The Khalsa army, under the command of several Sikh generals attacked the fort of Multan and broke the wall at two places, but they were repaired quickly. The enemy had put up a stiff resistance. The stand-off continued for three months.

Then Maharaja Ranjit Singh went to the Golden Temple and prayed for the victory. Here he met Akali Phula Singh and told him the whole story. From here he moved to Multan with the brave Akalis. The Sikhs bombarded the fort of Multan again with cannon fire and the wall broke again. Akali Phula Singh wasted no time and entered the fort with his band. The nawab fought with great courage. After a long battle Akali Phula Singh killed Muzaffar Khan. Five sons of the nawab (Niwaz Khan, Aiaz Khan, Mumtaz Khan, Haq Niwaz Khan and Shabab Khan were also killed. The rest of the army ran away. Both ace generals Akali Phula Singh and Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa got injured in this battle.

A famous cannon Zam Zama was used in this battle to break the wall of the fort. With each shot it sent eighty pounds of solid metal hurling into the wall and tore large pieces of it.

The conquest of Multan was very significat to the Khalsa Darbar. It ended te Afghan influence in the Punjab and broke the solid array of Muslim states in the south. After this victory Khalsa subdued the chiefs of Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismael Khan and Mankera.

- Ref:

1. Sher-i-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh bu Baba Prem Singh Hoti

2. A History of the Sikhs - Khushwant Singh

3. Tawareekh Guru Khalsa - Giani Gian Singh

1839 Maharaja Ranjit Singh had partially recovered from his stroke of 1838 yet was very feeble, when he suffered another stroke accompanied by dropsy and fever. Dr. Steel was sent by British to treat the Maharaja.

1984 Indian Armed forces replaced the Central Reserve Police force (CRPF) as a readiness step towards the Operation Bluestar.

==> BLUESTAR OPERATION is the code name for the June 1984 attack on Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, by the Indian Armed Forces. This attack was conducted under the pretext of flushing out terrorists but was designed for maximum damage. The attack took place on the day of Guru Arjan Dev Patshah's Shahadat Gurpurab observations. Further this operation was sanctioned under the direct orders of Indira Gandhi (then prime minister) and Zail Singh (then President). The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian Armed Forces using tanks, helicopters, and other heavy artillery, under the command of Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Sri Akal Takhat was desecrated during this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib sustained at least 300 bullet holes. Thousands of innocent people were murdered in cold blood. Their fault? They were attending the Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The brave GurSikh soldiers in the Akal Takhat, numbering about 250, gave extremely tough resistance to the Indian army. However, their resistance was no match to the large number of tanks, helicopters, bombs, and other heavy artillery that destroyed the Akal Takhat. The whole Sikh nation rose as a whole to protest against this ghastly attack. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Many gave their lives in attempts to reach for Darbar Sahib's protection. All roads to Amritsar were blocked. Every Sikh approaching these blockades were asked to remove their kirpan and turban. Those refusing were immediately killed or arrested. Anyone with blue or saffron turbans were particularly targeted and killed. Those arrested were blind folded and their hands tied behind their backs with their own turbans. Arrested Sikhs were packed in groups of 60-70 in small rooms with liitle room for any mobility.

In protest, many respected Sikhs returned their Padam Bushan medals/honors bestowed upon them by the Indian government and sacrificed their high positions. Several Sikh Army personal deserted their posts in protest and marched straight to protect Darbar Sahib. However, Indira Ghandhi did receive retribution for her black deeds on Oct. 31st, that same year.

For detailed description of events surrounding this attack, readers are referred to the following:

Gurbhagat Singh, "Kommi Ajadi Wal - Panjab Tae Punjabi Sabhiyachar Da Bhawish," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Major Singh, "Punjab Khuni Dahakae Di Ghatha," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Naraen Singh, "Kau Kito Visahau?" Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-003-8, 1986, 1990, 1992.

Naraen Singh, "Sikh Vira Nu Haluna," Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-085-2, 1987, 1989, 1993.

Harbir Singh Bhanwer (Tribune reporter), "Diary de Panne," This book is in Punjabi. It is hard to come by. I found it to be most authoritative books on this event. Mr. Bhanwer was the person who provided quite a bit of basic information to Mark Tully and Mr. Jacob for their book "Amritsar: Indira Gandhi's Last Battle."

Dr. Mohinder Singh, "Blue Star Ghalughara," This book was published in 1991 (several years after Dairy de Panne), but is more detailed.

Jathedar Kirpal Singh, "Saka Neela Tara." This book is written by thim when he was the Jathedar of Akal Takhat. I have not read it, but I think it has extremely valuable information.

1984 Punjab Sealed off to foreigners.

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June 3rd

1947 Mountbatten announced the division of the Punjab.

1984 GurSikhs courting arrest under Dharam Ud Morcha numbered over 235000.

1984 All communications including phone lines to and from Punjab are cut. Road blocks prevent anyone from entering or leaving Punjab and all journalists are expelled from Punjab. A total curfew is imposed and as many as 10,000 pilgrims are trapped inside the temple complex. Milk vendors from the villages who supply milk to the city of Amritsar are shot dead for violating the curfew orders.

Operation Bluestar: Sikh homeland occupied by Indian Army. Curfew declared and undeclared Martial law promulgated.

The Indian army occupied the whole of the Sikh homeland begining 9pm. Curfew declared and undeclared Martial law promulgated. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwalae gave his final interview to the jounalists. Today was the martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji: and the day the Indian Army chose to surround Guru Arjan's temple. All the phone lines, water, and electricity supply to the complex were cut off. Jarnail Singh appealed to his Singhs not to give up their arms. Amrik Singh, General Shahbeg Singh, and Giani Puran Singh were also present at that time. Whole Punjab was sealed from the rest of the world and a total blackout imposed.

==> BLUESTAR OPERATION is the code name for the June 1984 attack on Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, by the Indian Armed Forces. This attack was conducted under the pretext of flushing out terrorists but was designed for maximum damage. The attack took place on the day of Guru Arjan Dev Patshah's Shahadat Gurpurab observations. Further this operation was sanctioned under the direct orders of Indira Gandhi (then prime minister) and Zail Singh (then President). The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian Armed Forces using tanks, helicopters, and other heavy artillery, under the command of Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Sri Akal Takhat was desecrated during this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib sustained at least 300 bullet holes. Thousands of innocent people were murdered in cold blood. Their fault? They were attending the Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The brave GurSikh soldiers in the Akal Takhat, numbering about 250, gave extremely tough resistance to the Indian army. However, their resistance was no match to the large number of tanks, helicopters, bombs, and other heavy artillery that destroyed the Akal Takhat. The whole Sikh nation rose as a whole to protest against this ghastly attack. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Many gave their lives in attempts to reach for Darbar Sahib's protection. All roads to Amritsar were blocked. Every Sikh approaching these blockades were asked to remove their kirpan and turban. Those refusing were immediately killed or arrested. Anyone with blue or saffron turbans were particularly targeted and killed. Those arrested were blind folded and their hands tied behind their backs with their own turbans. Arrested Sikhs were packed in groups of 60-70 in small rooms with liitle room for any mobility.

In protest, many respected Sikhs returned their Padam Bushan medals/honors bestowed upon them by the Indian government and sacrificed their high positions. Several Sikh Army personal deserted their posts in protest and marched straight to protect Darbar Sahib. However, Indira Ghandhi did receive retribution for her black deeds on Oct. 31st, that same year.

For detailed description of events surrounding this attack, readers are referred to the following:

Gurbhagat Singh, "Kommi Ajadi Wal - Panjab Tae Punjabi Sabhiyachar Da Bhawish," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Major Singh, "Punjab Khuni Dahakae Di Ghatha," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Naraen Singh, "Kau Kito Visahau?" Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-003-8, 1986, 1990, 1992.

Naraen Singh, "Sikh Vira Nu Haluna," Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-085-2, 1987, 1989, 1993.

Harbir Singh Bhanwer (Tribune reporter), "Diary de Panne," This book is in Punjabi. It is hard to come by. I found it to be most authoritative books on this event. Mr. Bhanwer was the person who provided quite a bit of basic information to Mark Tully and Mr. Jacob for their book "Amritsar: Indira Gandhi's Last Battle."

Dr. Mohinder Singh, "Blue Star Ghalughara," This book was published in 1991 (several years after Dairy de Panne), but is more detailed.

Jathedar Kirpal Singh, "Saka Neela Tara." This book is written by thim when he was the Jathedar of Akal Takhat. I have not read it, but I think it has extremely valuable information.

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June 4th

1398 Bhagat Kabir was born.

==> KABIR (1398-1495)

RAG PARBHATI

The Lord first created Light:

From the Lord's play all living creatures came,

And from the Divine Light the whole creation sprang.

Why then should we divide human creatures

Into the high and the low?

Brother, be not 'in error,

Out of the Creator the Creation comes:

Everywhere in the creation the Creator is:

The Lord's Spirit is all-pervading!

The Lord, the Maker, hath moulded one mass of clay

Into vessels of diverse shapes.

Free from taint are all the vessels of clay

Since free from taint is the Divine Potter.

The True One pervadeth all things

All things come to pass as the Lord ordaineth.

He who hath understood the Divine Will

Recognizeth only the One Reality

And he alone is what man ought to be.

The Lord, being Unknowable, cannot be-comprehended,

But the Guru hath given me

A sweet joy of His Presence.

Kabir Sayeth: My doubts have departed from me.

In all things I have recognized the Taintless One.

Kabir was the most celebrated revolutionary saint of the Bhakti movement. He condemned social and religious abuses and emphasized the fundamental equality and fraternity of all mankind. Kabir was born to a widowed Brahmin on Jaeth Sudi 15 sunmat 1455. However, his mother left the new born baby next to a water pool near Banaras. Ali (Niru), a local weaver found the baby. Ali and his wife Nima together brought up this child as their own son. Child was named Kabir in accordance with the Muslim traditions of the time. Further, Kabir was educated in Islam studies. Kabir married Lohi and a son, Kamaal, was born.

Brought up in a weaver's family of Banaras, Kabir joined the Bhakti fold under Swami Ramanand's Influence. Thinking that being a low-caste he might not be considered fit to receive initiation, he lay prostrate one day, early in the morning, in the path which Ramanand used to follow while going to his bath. When the Swami's feet touched Kabir's body, he uttered the words 'Ram, Ram'. The saint affectionately lifted him and made him his disciple. Thereafter, Kabir got so deeply absorbed in meditation that he began to dwell habitually in the realms of the spirit.

Kabir has so blended with God

That none can distinguish him from his Lord.

A staunch believer in the worth of constructive human endeavour, Kabir was opposed alike to ritualism and asceticism. He sought to enlighten the benighted humanity. In those days the Indian society was rife with communal dissensions. Undaunted by opposition, Kabir fought against all the vicious influences. He pulled up the Pundits, the Kazis and the Mullas and inveighed against the Jogis and Sadhus. This act enraged the Muslim Mullanas who had him arrested, in sunmat 1547, by complaining to the King Sikandar Lodi that Kabir had been preaching what ran counter to the Islamic canon. Once an attempt was made to drown him in the Ganges; and, on another occasion, he was thrown before a drunken elephant to be crushed to death, nevertheless, Kabir remained unperturbed even in the face of this great calamity. Eventually, he became the leader of the Bhakti Movement. While expounding his life's aim, he declared that he was a worshipper of the godly and an enemy of the wicked and that it was his desire to spend all his time in communion with God:

The passion of his life was to enjoy a spell of unbroken intercourse with the Lord.

'KabirPanthis.' or the followers of Kabir, with their headquarters at Kanshi, constitute an important sect. Their holy book Kabir Bijak is well known.

Kabir's contribution to the Adi Granth, comprising 541 different verses arranged under 1 7 different ragas, exceeds that of any other bhakt. And in the absence of any other reliable manuscript, it remains the most authentic and precious part of his work.

-Ref. "Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 109) by Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh

Mahan Kosh (pp. 298)

1606 Guru Hargobind arrived in Daroli village near Moga, Ferozepur.

Guru Hargobind, accompanied by his mother Ganga and wife Damodari arrived in village Daroli in Pargana Dagru (near Moga in Ferozepur district). This move to the thickly forested and ill-connected Malwa tract, took place under the advice of leading Sikhs in response to the threats posed by the state tyranny.

==> Guru HAR GOBIND PATSHAH (1595-1644) was born on Hadh 21 sunmat 1652 (June 14, 1595) to father Sri Guru Arjan Dev Patshah and mother Matta Ganga Ji, in village Vadhali. He received his religious education from Baba Budha Ji. Guru Sahib married three time:

1. Damodari Ji, daughter of Dalha resident Narayan Das on Bhadho 12 sunmat 1661;

2. Nanaki Ji, daughter of Bakala resident Hari Chand on Vaisakh 8 sunmat 1670;

3. Mahadevi Ji, daughter of Mandiyala resident Daya Ram on Sawan 11 sunmat 1672.

Guru Sahib had five sons (Baba Gurditta Ji, Suraj Mal, Aani Rai, Atal Rai, and Guru Teg Bahadhur Ji) and one daughter (Bhiro). On Jaeth 29 sunmat 1663 (May 25 1606), while ascended to Guru Gadhi, Guru Har Gobind Patshah changed the previous tradition of wearing "Saeli toppi" (cap) and replaced it with wearing "Kalgi". At the same time, he started the tradition of wearing two swords of "Miri Piri". Observing the prevalent conditions of the nation at that time, Guru Sahib started teaching self-protection skills along with the religious preaching.

Guru Sahib,

* in sunmat 1665, constructed the Takhat "Akal Bungha", in front of Sri Harmindar Sahib,

* in sunmat 1669, established Sri Guru Arjan Dev Sahib's Dehra in Lahore,

* from sunmat 1670-71 flourished the forest region of Daroli, etc. by residing there,

* in sunmat 1624, helped Mohan and Kalae in establishing Maehraj in Malwa,

* in sunmat 1624, constructed the Kolsar sarowar in Amritsar,

* in 1685, constructed "Bibaek Sar" for Bibaekae Sikhs.

When the Akbar's policy of assimilation changed to Jahagir's propaganda against the Sikhs, resulting in the martyrdom of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Patshah, Guru Har Gobind Patshah urged his followers to pick up weapons for their self-protection. He preached self-protection along with his religious message. Upon hearing this, Jahagir arrested and jailed Guru Sahib in Gawalior fort. However, instead of losing popularity, as expected by Jahagir, this action immensely increased the popularity and following of Guru Sahib. Many renowned muslims issued a call for Guru Sahib's release. As a result, Jahagir not only released Guru Sahib but actively sought to establish some level of friendship. However, when Shahjahan came to power in sunmat 1685, the government policy went strongly against the Sikhs. As a result, Guru Sahib fought the following four wars with the Mughal forces:

1. Amritsar war with General Sukhlis Khan in sunmat 1685.

2. Sri Gobindpur war with the ruler of Jallandar in sunmat 1687.

3. War of Gurusar near Maehraj with General KamarBaeg in sunmat 1688. After this war, Guru Sahib blessed Phul with sovereign rule that subsequently emerged as the Patiala rule.

4. Kartarpur war with Kalae Khan, Pandhae Khan, etc. in 1691.

Subsequent to this war, Guru Sahib moved his resident to Kiratpur. However, Guru Sahib continued with his active propagation of Sikh faith. He traveled to Kashmir, PiliBheet, Baar, and Malwa and enlightened thousands on to the correct path. As a result many muslims came under the fold of Sikhs. He also encouraged Udasis to travel throughout the world to propagate Guru Nanak's message.

Guru Sahib left this materialistic world for heavenly abode on Chaet 7 sunmat 1701 (March 3, 1644) after serving as the sixth Guru of GurSikhism for a total of 37 years, 10 months, and 7 days. Guru Sahib's entire journey through this planet amounted to 48 years, 8 months, and 15 days. Guru Har Rai Patshah ascended to Guru Gadhi after Guru Har Gobind.

"Arjan Har Gobind Nu Simaro Sri Har Rai" (Chandhi 3)

-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 265)

1921 Kishan Singh Gargaj becomes fugitive.

1984 Operation Bluestar: Indian armed forces invaded Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar and more than 120 other shrines. Thousands of Sikhs killed.

The security forces started firing upon the Golden Temple complex. GurSikh freedom fighters responded with fire. Despite Indian army's repeated notice of surrender, GurSikh freedom fighters refused and giercely faced their onslaught. The army sorrounded the Golden Temple complex and started firing at 4:50 AM. Thousands of Sikhs were killed. Additionally, more than 120 other shrines were also attacked.

==> BLUESTAR OPERATION is the code name for the June 1984 attack on Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, by the Indian Armed Forces. This attack was conducted under the pretext of flushing out terrorists but was designed for maximum damage. The attack took place on the day of Guru Arjan Dev Patshah's Shahadat Gurpurab observations. Further this operation was sanctioned under the direct orders of Indira Gandhi (then prime minister) and Zail Singh (then President). The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian Armed Forces using tanks, helicopters, and other heavy artillery, under the command of Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Sri Akal Takhat was desecrated during this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib sustained at least 300 bullet holes. Thousands of innocent people were murdered in cold blood. Their fault? They were attending the Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The brave GurSikh soldiers in the Akal Takhat, numbering about 250, gave extremely tough resistance to the Indian army. However, their resistance was no match to the large number of tanks, helicopters, bombs, and other heavy artillery that destroyed the Akal Takhat. The whole Sikh nation rose as a whole to protest against this ghastly attack. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Many gave their lives in attempts to reach for Darbar Sahib's protection. All roads to Amritsar were blocked. Every Sikh approaching these blockades were asked to remove their kirpan and turban. Those refusing were immediately killed or arrested. Anyone with blue or saffron turbans were particularly targeted and killed. Those arrested were blind folded and their hands tied behind their backs with their own turbans. Arrested Sikhs were packed in groups of 60-70 in small rooms with liitle room for any mobility.

In protest, many respected Sikhs returned their Padam Bushan medals/honors bestowed upon them by the Indian government and sacrificed their high positions. Several Sikh Army personal deserted their posts in protest and marched straight to protect Darbar Sahib. However, Indira Ghandhi did receive retribution for her black deeds on Oct. 31st, that same year.

For detailed description of events surrounding this attack, readers are referred to the following:

Gurbhagat Singh, "Kommi Ajadi Wal - Panjab Tae Punjabi Sabhiyachar Da Bhawish," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Major Singh, "Punjab Khuni Dahakae Di Ghatha," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Naraen Singh, "Kau Kito Visahau?" Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-003-8, 1986, 1990, 1992.

Naraen Singh, "Sikh Vira Nu Haluna," Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-085-2, 1987, 1989, 1993.

Harbir Singh Bhanwer (Tribune reporter), "Diary de Panne," This book is in Punjabi. It is hard to come by. I found it to be most authoritative books on this event. Mr. Bhanwer was the person who provided quite a bit of basic information to Mark Tully and Mr. Jacob for their book "Amritsar: Indira Gandhi's Last Battle."

Dr. Mohinder Singh, "Blue Star Ghalughara," This book was published in 1991 (several years after Dairy de Panne), but is more detailed.

Jathedar Kirpal Singh, "Saka Neela Tara." This book is written by thim when he was the Jathedar of Akal Takhat. I have not read it, but I think it has extremely valuable information.

1987 US Congress discusses atrocities against Sikhs.

US Congress discussed the sufferings of the Sikhs at the hands of the Rajiv gandhi regime. Several Congressmen expressed their sympathies for the Sikh Nation. The Indian Government tried to stop this debate and threatened that all thos who sympathise with the Sikh Nation shall be banned from India. Still several Congressmen expressed their concern for the Sikh Nation.

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June 5th

1984 Operation Bluestar: Fierce battle in Golden Temple Complex, Sri Akal Takhat is attacked with heavy artillery and tanks.

And June 6 nights saw fierce battle between the Indian Army and GurSikhs inside the Golden Temple Complex. The onsluaght began around 7pm. 15,000 hand-picked and well-trained solidiers supported by tanks and armoured personnel carriers were involved in the assault. While another 35,000 soliders tried to put down any internal rebellion. It was rumored that Jarnail Singh Bhindranwalae has gone towards the Golden Temple. In response, the army sent their divers into the sacred tank, but they all were killed at the hands of the GurSikh freedom fighters. Subsequently, 60 commandos were sent to Sri Akal Takhat. 59 were killed in the first attack by the GurSikhs. Army's disappointment led to the deployment of heavy artillery and tanks started firing upon Sri Akal Takhat. By 9:30 AM, the army took control of the Golden Temple complex. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwalae and Amrik Singh received martyrdom in this attack along with many of their companions.

Sikhs were killed with their hands tied behind their back, bombs were thrown on the Sikh pilgrims after their arrest, and Sikh women raped; children weren't spared either. The Indian army went berserk, as they suffered a heavy toll. They killed every Sikh in their sight. Sikhs were hauled out of every room of darbar Sahib complex, brought to the corridors on the circumference of the temple and shot in cold blodd with their hands tied behind their backs.

==> BLUESTAR OPERATION is the code name for the June 1984 attack on Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, by the Indian Armed Forces. This attack was conducted under the pretext of flushing out terrorists but was designed for maximum damage. The attack took place on the day of Guru Arjan Dev Patshah's Shahadat Gurpurab observations. Further this operation was sanctioned under the direct orders of Indira Gandhi (then prime minister) and Zail Singh (then President). The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian Armed Forces using tanks, helicopters, and other heavy artillery, under the command of Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Sri Akal Takhat was desecrated during this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib sustained at least 300 bullet holes. Thousands of innocent people were murdered in cold blood. Their fault? They were attending the Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The brave GurSikh soldiers in the Akal Takhat, numbering about 250, gave extremely tough resistance to the Indian army. However, their resistance was no match to the large number of tanks, helicopters, bombs, and other heavy artillery that destroyed the Akal Takhat. The whole Sikh nation rose as a whole to protest against this ghastly attack. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Many gave their lives in attempts to reach for Darbar Sahib's protection. All roads to Amritsar were blocked. Every Sikh approaching these blockades were asked to remove their kirpan and turban. Those refusing were immediately killed or arrested. Anyone with blue or saffron turbans were particularly targeted and killed. Those arrested were blind folded and their hands tied behind their backs with their own turbans. Arrested Sikhs were packed in groups of 60-70 in small rooms with liitle room for any mobility.

In protest, many respected Sikhs returned their Padam Bushan medals/honors bestowed upon them by the Indian government and sacrificed their high positions. Several Sikh Army personal deserted their posts in protest and marched straight to protect Darbar Sahib. However, Indira Ghandhi did receive retribution for her black deeds on Oct. 31st, that same year.

For detailed description of events surrounding this attack, readers are referred to the following:

Gurbhagat Singh, "Kommi Ajadi Wal - Panjab Tae Punjabi Sabhiyachar Da Bhawish," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Major Singh, "Punjab Khuni Dahakae Di Ghatha," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Naraen Singh, "Kau Kito Visahau?" Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-003-8, 1986, 1990, 1992.

Naraen Singh, "Sikh Vira Nu Haluna," Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-085-2, 1987, 1989, 1993.

Harbir Singh Bhanwer (Tribune reporter), "Diary de Panne," This book is in Punjabi. It is hard to come by. I found it to be most authoritative books on this event. Mr. Bhanwer was the person who provided quite a bit of basic information to Mark Tully and Mr. Jacob for their book "Amritsar: Indira Gandhi's Last Battle."

Dr. Mohinder Singh, "Blue Star Ghalughara," This book was published in 1991 (several years after Dairy de Panne), but is more detailed.

Jathedar Kirpal Singh, "Saka Neela Tara." This book is written by thim when he was the Jathedar of Akal Takhat. I have not read it, but I think it has extremely valuable information.

At 7:00 p.m. Operation Blue Star, the invasion of The Golden Temple begins with tanks of the 16th Cavalry Regiment of the Indian Army moving to enclose the Golden Temple complex. Troops are briefed not to use their guns against the Golden Temple itself or the Akal Takht. Artillery is used to blast off the tops of the Ramgarhia Bungas and the water tank. Scores of buildings in and around the temple complex are blazing. One artillery shell lands more than 5 km away in the crowded city. In the narrow alley behind the Akal Takht paramilitary commandos try to get into the temple. Some make it to the roof but are turned back due to the heavy gunfire. Meanwhile tanks move into the square in front of the northern entrance to the Golden Temple known as the clock tower entrance.

At 10:30 pm commandos from the 1st Battalion, the Parachute Regiment try to run down the steps under the clock tower onto the marble parkarma around the sacred pool. They face heavy gunfire, suffering casualties and are forced to retreat. A second wave of commandos manage to neutralize the machine gun posts on either side of the steps and get down to the parkarma.

The Akal Takht is heavily fortified with sandbags and brick gun emplacements in its windows and arches. From here and the surrounding buildings the Sikh fighters are able to fire at any commandos who make their way in front of the Gurdwara.

Two companies of the 7th Garhwal Rifles enter the temple complex from the opposite side on the southern gate entrance and after a gun battle are able to establish a position on the roof of the Temple library. They are reinforced by two companies of the 15th Kumaons. Repeated unsuccessful attempts are made to storm the Akal Takht.

1996 Baldev Singh Chahal passed away suddenly from a heart attack. He successfully campaigned to change the British law that exempted GurSikhs from wearing helmets on motorcycles.

==> BALDEV SINGH CHAHAL (BA, LLB (Lon), was the General Secretary of the Council of Khalistan, UK when he passed away suddenly on 5th June from a heart attack at 59 years of age. Sirdar Chahal arrived in the UK in 1964, a young graduate from the Punjab,and in 1973, came to public prominence when he launched a campaign to change the law to exempt turbaned Sikhs from wearing helmets on motorcycles. During this campaign, he received much support, from both the Sikh community and the host community. The media also provided his campaign with wide coverage to help obtain the suppport necessary to change the law in Parliament.

In 1975, Sirdar Chahal was imprisoned for 30 days in Pentonville prison for riding his motorcycle whilst wearing his turban, as a point of principle and in order to protest against the law as it stood, which denied the Sikhs their fundamental right to wear their turban as a strict culural and religious requirement of their faith.

In 1976, as a result of Sirdar Chahal's continuous efforts, commitment and dedication, the campaign succeeded and the law was changed to exempt Sikhs from wearing a crash helmet.

Sirdar Chahal believed faithfully in the formation of the Sikh State of Khalistan and became active in the pursuit of Sikh independence from 1967 onwards. Sirdar Chahal's foremost ambition in life was to see the creation of the State of Khalistan.

Sirdar Chahal was a London University graduate and was deeply involved in community affairs. He stood for the British Parliament twice in his career and was known to pursue his principles exhaustively. He was a well respected and well known man.

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June 10th

1716 Remaining Sikhs captured with Baba Banda Singh Bahadur were beheaded.

Baba Banda Singh Bahadur, along with his infant son and a few select followers, was mercilessly tortured to death in Delhi, on June 9, 1716, by the order of Emporer Farukh Siyar (successor to Bahadhur Shah). The remaining Sikhs were beheaded on this day.

The sacrifice of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur was not in vain. To quote Hari Ram Gupta: "This tragic event changed the course, not only of Sikh history, but also of the history of Punjab. Banda (singh) had shown to the Sikhs the difference between those who were in power and those who were out of ot. The lesson of power once practically taught could not be forgotten by a military community."

1746 Lakhpat Rai killed more than 10,000 Sikhs. This is known as "Chhota Ghallughara", small carnage.

Over 10,000 Sikhs out of a total population of 15,000 were killed. This disaster goes by the name of "chhota ghalughara", small holocaust (as against the great holocaust of 1762).

After the 1745, Sarbat Khalsa resolution, Sikhs attacked Lahore one evening and decamped with a large booty. Yahya Khan who had taken over as Governor asked Diwan Lakhpar Rai to displace the Sikhsfrom the nearby swamp hounts. One of the units led by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia on the way to the hills clashed with his younger brother Jaspat Rai and chopped of his head. Lakhpat Rai now in rage vowed to erase the Sikhs from the pages of history.

Lakhpat Rai with the help of the provincial forces fell upon the Sikhs concentrated in the marshes of Kahnuwan on Ravi. Some cut their way through hostile hillmen to Kiratpur. The main body turned back and after heavy losses crossed the Bease and the Sutlej into Malwa. 7000 Sikhs were killed, and another 3000 taken prisoners were executed at Nakhas, horse market. In March of 1747, Yahiya Khan, the Governor of Lahore, was ousted by his brother Shah Nawaz Khan and Lakhpat Rai was put in prison.

1842 During midnight, at the instance of Dhian Singh Dogra, Maharani Chand Kaur's skull was crushed with grindstone by her maids who themselves were put to death later in the day.

==> CHAND KAUR: daughter of Fatehgadh (dist. Gurdaspur) resident Rais Sardar Jaemal Singh Kanaeo. In 1812, she married Khadak Singh, the eldest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Kanwar Naunihal Singh was born in 1821 from this marriage. Upon the head of her husband and son, she assumed and managed the control of Lahore Darbar for sometime.

In 1842, she was assasinated as a result of the conspiracy hatched by Raja Dhayan Singh Dogra and Mahara Sher Singh.

-Ref. Mahan Kosh 481

1896 Death of Attar Singh Bhadaur.

1957 Vir Singh passed away.

1974 Giani Kartar Singh, an Akali Leader died at Patiala.

1978 Nirankari Gurbachan Singh declared apostate by Akal Takhat. A Hukamnan was issued to the Sikhs for social boycott of the' Nirankari Mafia organization by Akal Takhat.

Nirankari Gurbachan Singh was declared apostate via a Hukamnana. The issuance of this hukamnama from Akal Takhat, the highest seat of religious authority and lehislation of Sikhs, forbidding the Sikhs to have any social dealings withe the Sant Nirankaris. This was an expression of the Sikh's will to protect themselves against the enroachments of those who questioned and attacked their fundamental beliefs and their accepted way of life and who in a body had killed several of their brothers-in-faith.

==> WHO WERE THE MURDERED GURSIKHS?

Over 1 million Sikh pilgrims had assembled at Amritsar on the Vaisakhi day of 1978. At the same time, the Nirankari-called Sect of bohemians from Delhi and other parts of the Indian sub-continent held a procession and a conference at Amritsara. During their Conference the speakers made venomous attacks on Sikhism, Sikh Gurus, Sikh scriptures, etc. A few Sikhs, under the command of Bhai Fauja Singh, marched from the Darbar Sahib to protest against this fake Nirankari procession in which Gurbachan Singh Nirankari had seated himself on a higher position than Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the prevalent Guru of GurSikhs, is always respectfully seated at the highest platform in any congregation. Anyone seated on a platform higher than that of Sri Guru Granth Sahib is considered disrespectful and sacrilegious among Guru Khalsa Panth.

Further, the Nirankaris were hurling grave and malicious insults against the GurSikhism religion, beliefs, and sentiments. Oblivious to the GurSikhs, the Nirankaris had other plans, including a para-military platoon armed with lethal weapons, guns, revolvers, acid-filled bottles and mechanical propellants for shooting poison-tipped arrows, all well positioned behind a row of trucks. The GurSikh protestors were persuaded by the police officers on duty into believing that steps were being taken to stop further provocations of GurSikhism sentiments. Then the voice of Gurbachan Singh. Nirankari chief, was heard over the sound system, saying "these sikhs think they can stop us from freely carrying out our program. Let them know today, how mistaken they are. Time has come to be active for those, who have come here for this job". Suddenly the para-military platoon briskly advanced toward the GurSikh protestors. The police on duty hurled tear-gas bombs against the unarmed GurSikhs, converting them into sitting ducks for their hunters. Even some Hindu police officials like O.D. Joshi joined the Nirankaris attacks on the protesting GurSikhs. When it was all over 13 lay dead and over 50 were seriously injured. The batch of protesting GurSikhs were from Akhand Kirtan Jatha and Bhindranwale jatha, led by Bhai Fuaja Singh, included the following 13 who layed their lives:

1. Bhai Amrik Singh

2. Bhai Avtar Singh

3. Bhai Darshan Singh

4. Bhai Dharamvir Singh

5. Bhai Fauja Singh

6. Bhai Gurcharan Singh

7. Bhai Gurdial Singh

8. Bhai Harbhajan Singh

9. Bhai Hari Singh

10. Bhai Kewal Singh

11. Bhai Piara Singh

12. Bhai Raghbir Singh

13. Bhai Ranbir Singh

The irony of the Sikh situation was this that Punjab was being ruled by a so-called Sikh Party; Amritsar was one of the holiest cities of the Sikhs; one minister, Mr Jiwan Singh was also present in the city; the city was the headquarters of the Akali Party and the Sikh Parliament (SGPC) and the Nirankaris had long been attacking the Sikh religion and this was known in the Government. Furthermore all the killers of the Sikhs escaped from the Punjab safely, even with the help of officials of the Punjab Government (including Niranjan Singh, an official of the Punjab and, allegedly, the Chief Minister of the Punjab).

Throughout the world the Sikhs exhibited their fury. However, the Akali ministers of Punjab province bowed before the Central (Hindu) Government and refused to ban the activities of this gang of bohemians. Meanwhile these ministers addressed various Sikh congregations and spoke against the Nirankaris so that the Sikh masses should not become furious against them for their indifferent (or pro-Nirankari) attitude.

Thus this became the starting point of the new phase of the struggle of the Sikh nation. The lead was given by the Sikh Youth under the guidance of the Sikh intelligentsia. They had to fight various platforms: the Hindus, the Communists and some of the pseudo-Akalis, who loved their office more than their nation.

This amritsar massacre was one of the most significant incidents of this century for GurSikhs. It led to the murder of Lala Jagat Narain, the rise of the Khalistan demand, attack on the Golden Temple and Sri Akal Takhat, and enormous destruction of lives and properties in Punjab, Delhi, and other locals of GurSikh population. It should be noted that although Gurbachan Singh's movement call themselves Nirankaris, they do not have anything in common with the original Nirankari movement that made enormous sacrifices and significant contributions for GurPanth's reform. For details see the description on Nirankaris below.

On October 6, 1978, a Hukumnama bearing the seal of Sri Akal Takhat (by the Jathedar of Sri Akal Takhat, Amritsar) was issued, calling upon GurSikhs all over the world to socially boycott these fake "Nirankaris" and not allow their faith and creed to grow or flourish in the society. This Hukumnama was prepared by a committee comprising of the following:

Giani Gurdit Singh

Giani Lal Singh

Giani Partap Singh

Giani Sadhu Singh Bhaura

Sardar Kapur Singh

Sardar Parkash Singh

Sardar Satbir Singh

Through this Hukumnama, all GurSikhs were asked to stop "roti beti di sanjh", food and marital relations, with the fake nirankaris. Gurbachan Singh was subsequently killed by the GurSikhs on Apr. 24, 1980. However, the repercussion of the initial event continue to persist.

-Ref. The Illustrated History of the Sikhs (1947-78), by Gur Rattan Pal Singh

THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119

==> NIRANKARI: a particular branch of GurSikh faith, established by Bhai Dayal Singh Ji. A Saehajdhari Sikh resident of Peshwar, GurSahai Ji, had a son named RamSahai Ji who married Ladhaki, daughter of Vasakha Singh (treasurer for the tenth Guru). Bhai Dayal Singh was born from this marriage on 15 Vaisakh sunmat 1840 (1783).

At the age of 30, Bhai Dayal Singh's mother passed away. Since then he moved to live with his Mama ji (mother's brother) Milkha Singh in Rawalpindi. Milkha Singh successfully instigated the drive for religious preaching in Bhai Dayal Singh Ji.

Bhai Dayal Singh married Mulladae and had three sons: Darbara Singh, Bhara Singh and Ratta Ji. Bhai Dayal Singh was continually absorbed in Nirankar Shabad Jaap and diligently preached against idol worship. For this reason, he and his following came to be known as "Nirankari". This group has actively and successfully lead reforms within GurPanth practices. However, it should be noted that this group is distinct in their beliefs and practices form another group who believes in human Guru and also calls themselves Nirankaris. Bhai Dyal Singh opposed idol worship and preached marriage reforms.

Bhai Dayal Singh Ji passed away on 18th Magh sunmat 1911. Rawalpindi has a beautiful Gurudwara of Nirankaris, where visitors are humbly served with GurSahab kirtan, Katha, Guru's Langar.

CAUTION:- The SANT NIRANKARIS are a recent phenomenon and they have nothing in common with the Nirankari sect of the Sikhs, except for the name. They are not even a schism split from it, although the founder, Buta Singh (1883-1944), was once a member of the Nirankari Durbar at Rawalpindi. Upon being asked to quit the Durbar for a misdemeanour, he raised a group of his own. He was succeeded by Avtar Singh, who after the partition of India, 1947, migrated to Delhi and set up a centre there. Over the years, he recruited a considerable following from among Sikhs, Hindus and others. He was followed by his son, Gurbachan Singh. Gurbachan Singh's son, Hardev Singh, is now the leader of the Nirankaris.

These Nirankaris have no affiliation with any of the known religious traditions. In any case, they have nothing in common with Sikh religion and own no connection with it. They welcome to their fold people from all religions. In this way, they form a freemasonry of faiths held together by the person of the leader, who is believed by the faithful to be the incarnation of God. As Gurbachan Singh once proclaimed : "The responsibilities assigned from time to time to prophets like Noah, Rama, Krishna, Moses, Christ, Muhammad, Kabir, Nanak, and Dayal have now been put on shoulders by my predecessor Baba Avtar Singh." In Nirankari writings, he was claimed to be the Deity, the creator of this entire universe, its sustainer and master.

It is not for anyone to controvert such claims. Least of all for Sikhs, who do not regard truth as the monopoly of any single group or faith. Their history and culture are witness to their liberal outlook. Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-75), Nanak IX, laid down his life to secure the people the liberty of conscience. His martyrdom was for the protection of the right of everyone to practise his religion unhindered. He protested against the State's interference with the individual's duty towards his faith. It was a declaration that any attempt to create a unitary, monolithic society must be resisted. It was a reiteration of the Sikh belief in an open and ethical social order and of the Sikh principles of tolerance and acceptance of diversity of faith and practice. This lesson is part of the Sikh experience and teaching and no follower of the faith may contravene it.

The Sikhs would have no quarrel with the Sant Nirankaris about their beliefs or ways of worship, but there are certain aspects of their system which cause abrasion. Although the Sikhs form a small percentage of their following, the Nirankari leaders have always preached their faith through the vocabulary and symbols of Sikhism. But with their native bias, they never cease from attempting to disfigure and distort many of its cherished ideals and institutions. Imitation breeds obliquity. The word Nirankari itself is borrowed from the Sikh chroniclers. The Founder, Guru Nanak, was by them referred to as Nanak Nirankari - believer in God, the Formless. "Nirankari Baba" is the title the Nirankari leader has appropriated unto himself. He retains his Sikh form, as did his predecessors. In imitation of Guru Gobind Singh's Panj Piare (the Five Beloved of Sikh history), he has created his Sat Sitare (Seven Stars). The names of venerable Sikh personages from history are assigned to members of the leader's family and his followers. Among them : Mata Sulakkhani (Guru Nanak's wife), Bibi Nanaki (Guru Nanak's sister), and Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas, two primal figures of Sikhism, both regarded highly in Sikh piety. Peculiarly Sikh terms, such as Satguru, Sangat and Sachcha Padshah, the title which the Sikh history came to be used for the Gurus, in contrast with Padshah and Badshah representing secular emperors, have been appropriated by the Nirankaris. Their religious book, a collection of Punjabi verse, incipient and elementary in character, by Avtar Singh, with little literary grace and spiritual content, is designated Avtar Bani in the manner of gurbani, i.e. the Sikh Gurus' utterance. In Nirankari congregations gurbani is frequently and copiously quoted, but with a deliberate slant. The purpose invariably is disapprobation of the Sikh way of life. Sikh Scriptures are quoted and expounded openly to suit the Nirankari bias. In their monthly journal, Sant Nirankari, articles were published on gurbani and its interpretation. These articles appeared under title such as "Vichar Sri Sachche Patshah" (Thoughts of, or Interpretations by, the True Lord, i.e. the Nirankari leader), and "Gurbani ki Hai" (What really is gurbani?). Meanings contrary to Sikh understanding and tradition were propounded.

Sikhs have resented the continuing denigration by the Nirankaris of the their faith and of their belief in the Guru Granth as the Person Visible of the Gurus. They have protested against it. This is what they attempted to do - peacefully - at the time of the huge Nirankari congregation in Amritsar on April 13, 1978, coinciding with Baisakhi celebrations by the Sikhs. The Sikh group which went to the site had no violent intent. They were unarmed, except for their religiously sanctioned regalia. They were neither Nihangs nor Akalis, though most of the Sikhs are of Akali persuasion - politically. The bulk of the protesters in fact belonged to Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh's jatha, whose primary concern is with kirtan or chanting of the holy hymns. Their other colleagues were from the jatha of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, who devote themselves exclusively to the study and expounding of the bani of the Guru Granth.

The protesting Sikhs were met with a shower of bullets from the Nirankaris. Thirteen of them were killed, and many more wounded. The congregation, under the aegis of the Nirankari leader, Gurbachan Singh, continued for more than three hours after the gruesome tragedy. No one - none from among the Nirankaris who profess love and human fellowship to be the fundamental value in their creed - had a thought to spare for the dead bodies that lay scattered outside.

-Taken from "Retrospect" section, on page 26 of the June 1994, Volume 42:6, No. 486, issue of The Sikh Review.

SANT NIRANKARIS & AKALIS --

The genesis of the real trouble between the Nirankaris and Akalis goes back to the years when Mrs. Gandhi headed the Union Government. She wanted to weaken the Shiromani Akali Dal but found that Akalis could not be brought to heel. She thought of an elaborate plan to strengthen the Nirankari sect not only in Punjab but throughout the country and abroad also. Official patronage was extended to the Nirankaris much to the chagin of Akalis who have always considered the Nirankaris as heretics. In pursuit of this policy of divide and rule, Mrs. Gandhi personally gave clearance for a diplomatic passport to be issued to the Nirankari chief, and the Indian High Commissioners and Ambassadors abroad were instructed to show him respect and regard. This was meant to help the sect to improve its image and increase its following abroad. During Mrs. Gandhi's regime, the Nirankaris were known to be receiving financial help from secret Government funds, not open to audit or scrutiny by Parliament.

- Sat Pal Baghi of Ferozepore in Chandigarh Edition of Indian Express in the last week of April, 1978.

1982 Hot iron rod shoved into GurSikh's stomach.

Hot Iron Rods were shoved into GurSikh's Stomach. On May 22, three persons were killed at Patti by some unidentified persons. The police declared rewards of thousands of Rupees for effecting the arrest of a number of Sikhs:

Sukhdev Singh,

Anokh Singh,

Kulwant Singh,

Lakha Singh,

Dhanna Singh,

Suba Singh,

Balwinder Singh,

Sulakhan Singh,

Jagat Singh,

Surinder Singh and

Kulwant Singh of Jagadhri.

One of these, Kulwant Singh, was arrested by the police. He was kept in illegal police custody for some days and later he was formally charged. He was tortured by the police for a number of days. When the police were unable to extract information from him he was asked to read out an already prepared confessional statement. He refused. At this, a red hot iron was shoved into his stomach. He was branded by a hot iron on his forehead and every point of his body was fractured by blunt weapons. He survived the torture but carried the brands, which could be seen by everyone. The police, in order to destroy the evidence of inhuman torture, shot him dead in a fake encounter. The murder was committed on the night of June 10-11, 1982. This fake encounter has been referred to in the Amnesty International Report, 1983.

1984 Sikhs took out huge processions in London (UK) and in the capitals of all the major countries throughout the world to protest against the attrocities committed by the Indian government during its operation Bluestar. 1984 Sikh solidiers of Sikh Regiment rebeled in protest of Indian Amry's attack on Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar.

400 Sikh solidiers of Sikh Regiment, stationed in Ganga Nagar, rebeled in protest of Indian Amry's attack on Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar. Armed with weapons and heavy artillery they reach the Punjab border where they faught a piched battle with other regiment. Heavy losses took place on both sides, the surviving members were arrested. Similar news was received from RamGadh. The Sikh unit stations in Amritsar camps refused to participate this the operation Bluestar.

1985 Harjinder Singh and Sukhdev Singh Sukha killed General Vaidya, who had invaded darbar Sahib on June 4, 1984a This operation code named Bluestar.

==> BLUESTAR OPERATION is the code name for the June 1984 attack on Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, by the Indian Armed Forces. This attack was conducted under the pretext of flushing out terrorists but was designed for maximum damage. The attack took place on the day of Guru Arjan Dev Patshah's Shahadat Gurpurab observations. Further this operation was sanctioned under the direct orders of Indira Gandhi (then prime minister) and Zail Singh (then President). The Golden Temple Complex was attacked by the Indian Armed Forces using tanks, helicopters, and other heavy artillery, under the command of Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Sri Akal Takhat was desecrated during this attack. Sri Darbar Sahib sustained at least 300 bullet holes. Thousands of innocent people were murdered in cold blood. Their fault? They were attending the Martyrdom day of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The brave GurSikh soldiers in the Akal Takhat, numbering about 250, gave extremely tough resistance to the Indian army. However, their resistance was no match to the large number of tanks, helicopters, bombs, and other heavy artillery that destroyed the Akal Takhat. The whole Sikh nation rose as a whole to protest against this ghastly attack. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Many gave their lives in attempts to reach for Darbar Sahib's protection. All roads to Amritsar were blocked. Every Sikh approaching these blockades were asked to remove their kirpan and turban. Those refusing were immediately killed or arrested. Anyone with blue or saffron turbans were particularly targeted and killed. Those arrested were blind folded and their hands tied behind their backs with their own turbans. Arrested Sikhs were packed in groups of 60-70 in small rooms with liitle room for any mobility.

In protest, many respected Sikhs returned their Padam Bushan medals/honors bestowed upon them by the Indian government and sacrificed their high positions. Several Sikh Army personal deserted their posts in protest and marched straight to protect Darbar Sahib. However, Indira Ghandhi did receive retribution for her black deeds on Oct. 31st, that same year.

For detailed description of events surrounding this attack, readers are referred to the following:

Gurbhagat Singh, "Kommi Ajadi Wal - Panjab Tae Punjabi Sabhiyachar Da Bhawish," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Major Singh, "Punjab Khuni Dahakae Di Ghatha," Vichar Prakashan, 1993

Naraen Singh, "Kau Kito Visahau?" Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-003-8, 1986, 1990, 1992.

Naraen Singh, "Sikh Vira Nu Haluna," Singh Brothers, Mai Sewa, Amritsar, ISBN 81-7205-085-2, 1987, 1989, 1993.

Harbir Singh Bhanwer (Tribune reporter), "Diary de Panne," This book is in Punjabi. It is hard to come by. I found it to be most authoritative books on this event. Mr. Bhanwer was the person who provided quite a bit of basic information to Mark Tully and Mr. Jacob for their book "Amritsar: Indira Gandhi's Last Battle."

Dr. Mohinder Singh, "Blue Star Ghalughara," This book was published in 1991 (several years after Dairy de Panne), but is more detailed.

Jathedar Kirpal Singh, "Saka Neela Tara." This book is written by thim when he was the Jathedar of Akal Takhat. I have not read it, but I think it has extremely valuable information.

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June 11th

1595 Prakash Utsav, Sixth Patshah, Guru Hargobind Ji.

==> Guru HAR GOBIND PATSHAH (1595-1644) was born on Hadh 21 sunmat 1652 (June 14, 1595) to father Sri Guru Arjan Dev Patshah and mother Matta Ganga Ji, in village Vadhali. He received his religious education from Baba Budha Ji. Guru Sahib married three time:

1. Damodari Ji, daughter of Dalha resident Narayan Das on Bhadho 12 sunmat 1661;

2. Nanaki Ji, daughter of Bakala resident Hari Chand on Vaisakh 8 sunmat 1670;

3. Mahadevi Ji, daughter of Mandiyala resident Daya Ram on Sawan 11 sunmat 1672.

Guru Sahib had five sons (Baba Gurditta Ji, Suraj Mal, Aani Rai, Atal Rai, and Guru Teg Bahadhur Ji) and one daughter (Bhiro). On Jaeth 29 sunmat 1663 (May 25 1606), while ascended to Guru Gadhi, Guru Har Gobind Patshah changed the previous tradition of wearing Saeli toppi (cap) and replaced it with wearing Kalgi. At the same time, he started the tradition of wearing two swords of Miri Piri. Observing the prevalent conditions of the nation at that time, Guru Sahib started teaching self-protection skills along with the religious preaching.

Guru Sahib,

* in sunmat 1665, constructed the Takhat Akal Bungha, in front of Sri Harmindar Sahib,

* in sunmat 1669, established Sri Guru Arjan Dev Sahib's Dehra in Lahore,

* from sunmat 1670-71 flourished the forest region of Daroli, etc. by residing there,

* in sunmat 1624, helped Mohan and Kalae in establishing Maehraj in Malwa,

* in sunmat 1624, constructed the Kolsar sarowar in Amritsar,

* in 1685, constructed Bibaek Sar for Bibaekae Sikhs.

When the Akbar's policy of assimilation changed to Jahagir's propaganda against the Sikhs, resulting in the martyrdom of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Patshah, Guru Har Gobind Patshah urged his followers to pick up weapons for their self-protection. He preached self-protection along with his religious message. Upon hearing this, Jahagir arrested and jailed Guru Sahib in Gawalior fort. However, instead of losing popularity, as expected by Jahagir, this action immensely increased the popularity and following of Guru Sahib. Many renowned muslims issued a call for Guru Sahib's release. As a result, Jahagir not only released Guru Sahib but actively sought to establish some level of friendship. However, when Shahjahan came to power in sunmat 1685, the government policy went strongly against the Sikhs. As a result, Guru Sahib fought the following four wars with the mughal forces:

1. Amritsar war with General Sukhlis Khan in sunmat 1685.

2. Sri Gobindpur war with the ruler of Jallandar in sunmat 1687.

3. War of Gurusar near Maehraj with General KamarBaeg in sunmat 1688. After this war, Guru Sahib blessed Phul with sovereign rule that subsequently emerged as the Patiala rule.

4. Kartarpur war with Kalae Khan, Pandhae Khan, etc. in 1691. Subsequent to this war, Guru Sahib moved his resident to Kiratpur. However, Guru Sahib continued with his active propagation of Sikh faith. He traveled to Kashmir, PiliBheet, Baar, and Malwa and enlightened thousands on to the correct path. As a result many muslims came under the fold of Sikhs. He also encouraged Udasis to travel throughout the world to propagate Guru Nanak's message.

Guru Sahib left this materialistic world for heavenly abode on Chaet 7 sunmat 1701 (March 3, 1644) after serving as the sixth Guru of GurSikhism for a total of 37 years, 10 months, and 7 days. Guru Sahib's entire journey through this planet amounted to 48 years, 8 months, and 15 days. Guru Har Rai Patshah ascended to Guru Gadhi after Guru Har Gobind. Arjan Har Gobind Nu Simaro Sri Har Rai (Chandhi 3)

-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 265)

1982 Kulwant Singh Nagoke killed in fake encounter. This murder marked the begining of the era of fake encounters.

Kulwant Singh' s murder was the first instance. His body was taken to the hospital for postmortem. It was then the police began an era of fake encounter murders of Sikhs. In all these cases the police did not hand over the bodies of the dead persons because from the postmortem reports the reality would have come before the world. Some of these have been disclosed by police officials themselves: Jasdev Singh and Sukhdev Singh, both of the village of Kot Isse Khan (near Moga), were arrested and taken to the police station to extract some information from them. They were stripped and their stomachs were cut open by pincers and their intestines were taken out while they were still alive. Later, their eyes were gouged out with a knife. Both of them were killed in a fake encounter and their bodies were quietly cremated by the police so that no evidence of torture could be traced.

Killing of a Sikh in a Rickshaw: Balwant Singh, A young Sikh man, was going to the Darbar Sahib in a rickshaw. A Deputy Superintendent of Police, Lajwant Singh, took out his pistol and shot him dead without cause.

Sikh Granthi Killed: Darshan Singh, a Granthi of Darbar Sahib, was walking home after reciting his prayer. He was shot dead by the Central Reserve Police (CRP) without cause.

-Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119

1982 15 Beedhs of Sri Guru Granth Sahib were burned at village Makha, district Bathinda.

1984 Dal Khalsa announced its Government in Exile.

1984 Dawinder Singh Garcha, an Congress(I) member for Ludhiana, resigned his position in protest of Indian Army's attack on Darbar Sahib, Amritsar.

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June 12th

1985 Jathaedar Pritam Singh Gojran demanded the formation of sovereign Sikh State.

1960 The Sikh procession in connection with Punjabi Suba agitation was fired upon at Delhi. Sardar Harbans Singh and three others accepted shahadat.

1984 Sirdar Badal and Surjit Singh Barnala arrested under Indian Security act.

1984 Sikh Solidier roits errupted at 6 places and and count reach over 1000.

1984 Firing can be clearly heard in the broadcast of Hukam from darbar Sahib, Amritsar.

The broadcast of Darbar Sahib program from Amritsar, also relayed the gun-fire while Head Granthi Sahib, Giani Sahib Singh Ji was reading the day's Hukam.

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jethuwal    0

November 8th

1665 Guru Tegh Bahadhur was arrested and taken to Delhi. The acceptance of Guruship by Guru Tegh Bahadhur without obtaining the approval of the imperial government at Delhi was considered an affront to Aurangzeb. he deputed Alam Khan Rohilla to take the Guru into custody, and bring him to his presence. Alam Khan and his escort showed themselves up in Dhamdhan when Guru Sahib was in the deep forest on a hunting expedition. Guru Tegh Bahadhur and his entourage were rounded up and taken to Delhi. This is the only time Guru Sahib met Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb asked Guru Sahib to show miracles or be ready to be put to death. Guru Sahib refused the first option as display of miracles is discouraged in Sikhism and considered arrogance while competing with God. As a result Aurangzeb ordered the execution of Guru Sahib. But the intervention of Raja Ram Singh, son of Raja Jai Singh, made Aurangzeb to relent, and order instead the detention of Guru Sahib and his entourage under his care. They were released on December 16, 1665.

1899 "Khalsa Samachar", a weekly punjabi newsletter, was started by Vir Singh.

1921 First Akali Conspiracy case initiated. Case lasted until May 8, 1922, Presiding Magistrate was P.J. Rust. Babbars involved included :-

Amar Singh, Kot Barre Khan (Gujranwala) - approver

Amar Singh, Delhi - absconded

Bachittar Singh, Dhuri (Sangrur)

Battan Singh, Kahir (Hoshiarpur) diede in July 1921

Bela Singh, Gholia Khurad (Ferozpur) - sentenced to 5 years term of improsonment

Bijla Singh, Ghuruan, District Patiala - Absconded

Bishan Singh, Sherpur (Sangrur)

Bur Singh, Lussar, Karamn Singhwala (Sialkot)

Chanchal Singh, Jandiala (Jullunder)

Chattar Singh, Tung (Gujjaranwala) - approver

Chattar Singh, Jethuwal Ahluwalia (Amritsar)

Ganda Singh, Sarhali Khurd (Amritsar) - approver

Gurbachan Singh, Ambala, District Hoshiarpur, absconded

Guabakhash Singh, Peshawari - approver

Kishan Singh, Birring, District Jullunder - absconded

Mota Singh, Patara, District JUllunder - absconded

Narain Singh, Chattiwind (Amritsar)

Prem Singh, Lahore - approver

Sarmukh Singh, Kahiri (Hoshiarpur) - approver

Sham Singh, Kahiri (Hoshiarpur)

Sadhu Singh, Dhuri (Sangrur)

Shankar Singh, Pindori Bibi (Hoshiarpur)

Tara Singh, Thethar (Lahore) - sentenced to 5 years imprisonment

Thakar Singh, Bhojawal (Jullunder)

Tota Singh, Peshawar - sentenced to 5 years imprisonment

1927 Formation of the Simon Commission announced.

1983 Sikhs of Yamuna Nagar were attacked by fundamentalist Hindus.

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