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  1. Blue

    Is there any specific shade of blue for the Khalsa? Is it Just any shade of blue? What shade of blue do Nihang Singhs wear? If possible, please provide the numbers for the colour of sRGB (Red Green Blue) Thanks In Advance, Sr Waheguru Jee Kee Fateh!
  2. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji administered Amrit in front of thousands to the initial Panj Piarey and consecutive Amritdharis, so when did this practice of administering Amrit out of the sight of the sangat commence?
  3. Waheguru ji ka khalsa Waheguru ji ki Fateh just read this article and it fills me with hope that the panth will start acting on Guru Gobind SIngh's advice and come together again under Guru Granth Sahib ji, your thoughts? http://dailysikhupdates.com/namdhari-head-expels-thakur-dalip-singh-for-pledging-to-join-khalsa-panth/
  4. Waheguru Breaking: Namdhari Leader Wants to Join Khalsa Panth(DSU News Bureau) 3 June 2015- Namdhari leader Thakur Dalip Singh and his followers arrived at Hassanpur, Punjab to visit Bapu Surat Singh Khalsa and to express his willingness to join Khalsa Panth. Bapu Ji was arrested by police and taken to the hospital for force feeding. Although, Thakur Dalip Singh couldn’t meet with Bapu Ji but he met with Sangarsh committee leaders and expressed unity for the cause. It is important to point out that not all Sikh groups under the Akal Takht have come in support of Bapu Surat Singh Khalsa nor have they visited him. Thakur Dalip Singh isn’t the head of the Namdhari community but an estimated 80% of Namdharis follow him. The important points towards unity were the following: 1) Namdhari Leader Thakur Dalip Singh has told his followers to use the word Guru while saying Guru Granth Sahib Ji as before his followers pronounced Aad Sri Granth Sahib. 2) They have agreed to use the Fateh greeting as before it wasn’t always used. 3) Majhbhi Sikhs have been given equal rights as before they ate langar separately and were treated unequally, but now those Majhbhi Sikhs that are Naamdhari will be treated equally according to Thakur Dalip Singh. 4) Thakur Dalip Singh has pledged to support Khalsa Raj and a separate Khalsa State. 5) Thakur Dalip Singh has organized a program in the past where Panthic groups were present. In that program, the theme was for unity of various Sikh groups for a common cause. Also, in that program the Dohara ‘Agia Bhaei Akal Ki’ was read and names of only the ten Sikh Gurus were said which has never happened before among the Naamdharis. Thakur Dalip Singh further pledged to join the Khalsa Panth and to follow it’s Rehats. The historic meeting for unity is being recognized as a turning point to achieve long avoided goals of the Panth. taken from: http://dailysikhupdates.com/breaking-namdhari-leader-wants-to-join-khalsa-panth/
  5. Chaos erupted inside Turlock Gurdwara Sahib in California after a Taksali Singh asked Prof Sarbjit Singh Dhunda a question on Dasam Granth. The question revolved around the maryada of Akal Takht Sahib on Dasam Granth and whether parcharaks are allowed to protest against it. After the question was asked a person with Sarbjit Singh Dhunda somehow felt offended and walked out of the Gurdwara. Sikh sangat became upset on why the question wasn’t fully answered and the urge to leave. Some members of the sangat felt Prof Dhunda was corned on the topic while some said he avoided the questions. SIKH24 OP/ED Do you believe that Professor Sahib Singh’s teeka is the best ever written on Guru Granth Sahib Ji Dhunda: Yes Do you believe that everything written in Guru Granth Sahib Ji is true or not? After some thought, Dhunda answers yes. Do you believe in 8.4 million lives and if there is a life after death or if the soul continues its journey? Dhunda is not able to answer this because he believes there is nothing after life and God has only created us to be better human beings. Dhunda’s explanations are then questioned by references from various shabads in Guru Granth Sahib. Over and over, it is mentioned that there is an after life and what we do, we will have to repent. After this was the biggest question - Do you believe in the super natural concepts mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib Ji? And do you believe that these were just written or those events actually took place? Dhunda answers, however he tries to be smart. He questions that how can a fish go in the air and how can a cow be back alive after it was dead? Responding to Dhunda’s questions, Singhs mention that Professor Sahib Singh and other scholars have all said and interpreted those gurbani verses in the way that those incidents have occurred just how they have been written. S. Kulwant Singh states that if God wants, anything is possible. So if that means the cow was alive again according to Gurbani, then it was, because God made that happen to show and honor the protection of his devotees. After this, Bhai Amarbir Singh from Manteca asked the following question - Does any Sikh parcharak have the right, according to Akal Takht Sahib to openly condemn Sri Dasam Granth? Dhunda asks that the Singhs provide him proof where he has gone against Akal Takht Sahib. Amarbir Singh mentioned that Dhunda has done so many times and there are many recordings. However, during the debate, Dhunda then cleverly changes topic and Balraj Singh, Dhunda’s main sponsor from Patterson gets up and says this was not part of the debate today. Singhs however stated that we are not asking if Sri Dasam Granth is right or wrong, it is only asked if according to our Akal Takht Maryada, is it right to condemn Dasam Granth. After this, Dhunda and his supporters get up try to leave the debate. However, Singhs pose the next question - Do you believe that doing Waheguru Simran is a waste of time and if that had any meaning for the after life. In response, Dhunda pauses for a moment, and then finally answers that Simran is only for us to get a peace of mind here in this world and that he doesn’t know if it has any meaning after since he has not died yet. Singhs insist that over and over, Guru Granth Sahib Ji answers this there is a meaning and without the recitation of God, no one will find the door of liberation at the God’s court, unless God chooses otherwise. So that being, what right does Dhunda have to say Waheguru Simran is pretty much a waste of time? Conclusion These were the basic questions Dhunda could not answer because he does not believe in these concepts. While is it is of utmost important to live a perfect life, it is important to also live life in a way as prescribed by the Gurus, ie. by recitation and understanding of Gurbani and by doing naam simran, keeping rehit, etc. If after life was not important, then why wear a dastar, keep a beard, keep rehit, take amrit?
  6. In the month of April, Sikh world celebrates Vaisakhi - the day when foundation of Khalsa was laid by Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Here is a beautiful Infographic by Sikh Stage that shows the basics of Vaisakhi and its history. For more Sikh Infographics, follow Sikh Stage on facebook - facebook.com/SikhStage Click here to read - http://on.fb.me/1CK1u0V
  7. so i do A level philosophy and im in a class with 3 other people. 2 athiests ans 1 agnostic. We do alot of political philosophy and we disscuss things like whether libery or equality should be core priorities of the state etc. its interesting but its hard to come up with one answer. so i was wondering what the sikh state would look like. the khalsa was formed to rule n save the world essentially and i tried to discuss this in my lesson which started a debate. i was arguing that our state would be one which instead of capitalism and money at its core would have spirituality. i was arguing for a society simmilar to platos philosopher king, with guru granth sahib ji mahraj at the top and the punj pyare as like the prime ministers. i argued that this state would be better than any other state because it places the enphsis on something internal (Dasam duar) rather than materalistic things like money, the athiests said that this would be a society which favorited the religious and we wouldnt be modernisng and going forward but going backwards, and that the spiritual people at the top (punj pyare) would become corrupt. but i said hat sikhi was different coz its an enclusive religion and wouldnt have a problem with any other belief system or faith or would not contradict anyone. also our ideology is to serve the world, we wouldnt be serving everyone by picking favorites but there were many pragmatic issues highligted to me with my conception of the sikh state this was only my interpritation of the sikh state with my limited knowledge of sikhi thru bhai jigraj singh ji and russell brand lol, i came across alot of practical issues that wouldnt be work in a complex society like todays. i wanted to know some more eeducated descriptions of how a sikh state would look as were proberbly gonna continue this debate in tomorows lesson lol thanks waheguru ji ka khalsa, waheguru ji ki fateh
  8. (April 17, 2015)—Moninder Singh, a well-respected Sikh youth activist was arrested earlier today during a protest outside Ross Street Gurdwara in Vancouver. A number of Sikh youth, along with representative of various organizations arrived outside the Gurdwara to protest the arrival of Modi for his role in massacres of Muslims in Gujarat. Modi Government is also responsible for carrying out attacks on various other minorities in India. Jakara Movement, a Sikh Youth organization stated that Moninder Singh was arrested for exercising freedom of speech. Canadian police also threatened to arrest others who were at the Gurdwara. Moninder Singh was asked to leave by the police, however he refused and continued to protest peacefully when he was arrested. Sangat members were denied entry to the Gurdwara by the police. “We are being asked to leave the premises. We are denying, we are rejecting the police telling us to move. They are gearing up to push us out,” said a youth outside the Ross Street Gurdwara. Source http://www.sikh24.com/2015/04/17/breaking-canadian-police-arrests-sikh-youth-leader-during-peaceful-protest-against-narendra-modi/#.VTCkhPnF9K0 Extra videos from the Modi protest at Candian Gurdwara:https://www.youtube.com/user/jakara/videos
  9. ਖਾਲਸਾ ਸਾਜਨਾ ਅਤੇ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਾਹਿਬਾਨ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਸਮਾਜ ਲਿਆਂਦੀ ਅਧਿਆਤਮਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਸੂਰਮਈ ਕ੍ਰਾਂਤੀ| Khalsa sajna and revolutions in society by Guru Sahibaan. ਖਾਲਸੇ ਦੀ ਸਾਜਨਾ ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਦੁਆਰਾ ੩੦ ਮਾਰਚ ੧੬੯੯ ਨੂੰ ਕੀਤੀ ਗਈ, ਪਰ ਖਾਲਸੇ ਨੂੰ ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰਾਂ ਤਿਆਰ ਹੋਣ ਲਈ ੨੩੦ ਸਾਲ ਦਾ ਸਮਾਂ ਲੱਗਾ, ਜਿਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਾਹਿਬਾਨ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਸਮਾਜ ਵਿੱਚ ਅਨੇਕਾਂ ਕ੍ਰਾਂਤੀਆਂ ਲਿਆਂਦੀ ਗਈਆਂ| Foundation of Khalsa was laid by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on 30 March 1699. But preparation of Khalsa was a long process of 230 years. In these years, Guru Sahibaan brought about several revolutions in the society. Check out this infographic by Sikh Stage for complete read - ਪੂਰਾ ਪੜ੍ਹਨ ਲਈ ਕਲਿੱਕ ਕਰੋ http://on.fb.me/1NCEgFQ
  10. http://kam1825.podbean.com/e/akhbars-previous-life/
  11. What decision has been made BIKRAMI or Nanakshahi. Also what are your opinions. ?? BIKRAMI is the correct calender I believe, while the Nanakshahi crows seem to be dhunda and missionarya
  12. Throughout the years there has been problems here and there in our Panth ranging from different areas that affect the Panth as a whole. The Punj Pyare court system isn't a new brought up idea but why don't Sikh gurdwaras/councils/organizations take it into consideration? I have heard so many times Sikhs talking about it but don't push it first in their agenda. We really need to push for a punj pyare to govern gurdwaras in a country. This has to be one of the top ideas all Sikhs should be pushing forward in the coming years. The benefit of having a punj pyare system will solve many issues that are revolving in our Panth. It has to happen and it will help stabilize the Panth. Questions to ask ourselves: 1) Can different groups AKJ, Taksali, Nihungs.. come to together and make an agreement to set up the punj pyare regardless of differences? 2) Who will be against this decision that the Panth will have trouble with(gw committees, jathas?)
  13. Wake Up

  14. Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru ji ki Fateh having read an extract translation of this book , I am curious to read the whole either in Punjabi or Translation any ideas where I could get a pdf or hard copy?
  15. I recently came across this article, its worth a read and surprisingly brilliant. http://prints.iiap.res.in/bitstream/2248/5294/1/On%20the%20historical%20significance%20of%20the%20total%20solar%20eclipse
  16. Just for fun. Topic title says it all. I tend to agree with ProActive 99% of the time. (This despite the fact that the brother doesn't bother responding to inbox messages :lol2: ) Johnny bai's posts I tend to agree with most of the time too.
  17. Why do we prerequisite being 'amritdhari' to speak up for Panthic issues? Many times I have seen people demanding others to take Khande di Pahul before talking about Panthic issues. But are the really two related? Jinnah, who founded Pakistan - the home for the Indian Muslims - was a non practising Muslim who enjoyed wine, women and pork. Theodor Herzl - founding father of Zionism - was a cultural Jew and a self admitted atheist.
  18. 24 year old Sikh man has been stabbed at a Tescos store in Wales by a White Supremacist! The Singh was shopping at Tescos when this attack took place. ...the White Christian terrorist chased the Sikh man with a huge knife and hammer ..Whilst repeatedly shouting "White Power" Singh sustained injuries to the stomach, arms and hands. We condemn this attack, and wish Singh a full and speedy recovery. We ALSO question why the media did not highlight this racist attack...why wasn't the perpetrator of this attack branded by his religion. ....or class this as a Terrorist attack! AFTER ALL the Sikhs have done and continue to do so for this Country! FROM FB NEW DETAILS SOON MAYBE IN RETALIATION FROM THE RECENT CHARLIE HEBDO ATTACK? IGNORANCE IS TOO WIDESPREAD.
  19. Isn't doing nitnem a ritual? Doesn't sggs ji forbid ritualism?
  20. Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh West Coast Sikhi Camp (California) is just around the corner. There are only a handful of spots remaining. This is a really good retreat for amritdharis to rejuvenate, as well as for those people who are new to Sikhi. Camp is open to Sikh youth and teenagers. Please check out our website on www.wcsikhicamp.com
  21. CHANDIGARH, India (November 4, 2014)—The hunger strike of Bhai Gurbaksh Singh Khalsa for the release of imprisoned Sikhs has been halted in uncertainty. Due to the non-availability of space and alert of Intelligence Agencies, Bhai Gurbaksh Singh is not succeeding in starting his hunger strike. It is worth mentioning that Bhai Khalsa announced few days ago that if the Jathedar of Sri Akal Takht Sahib will not fulfil his promise before Bandi Chhor Diwas, then he will again sit a hunger strike. He planned to start his hunger strike in Subhan of Jalandhar, but the police didn’t allow him. While expressing disappointment, he said that nobody is coming forward to provide space for his hunger strike. http://www.sikh24.com/2014/11/04/hunger-strike-of-bhai-gurbaksh-singh-stopped-due-to-non-availability-of-space/#.VFnM4fnF9K0
  22. The Dead Lands.

    I recently saw the trailer for this film and was saddened, especially seeing that Sikhs possess no viable film industry. http://www.flicks.co.nz/movie/the-dead-lands/ Ironically if we do ever have a historic Sikh film will it have exacerbated stunts like this:? I am sure that somewhere along the line the Punjab film industry grew confused between culture (Punjabi) and history (not balle balle).
  23. Recently a member brought to my attention a thread on this forum which aims to denote the factual integrity of Saraghari as a myth. The essential crux, of this denotation, is that the British and Sikhs always re-wrote their losses in order to exhibit a sense of victory and self-proclaimed glory. In short, the initiator of the myths and facts analysis believes that the battle has been considerably hyped at the expense of his poor, yet silent suffering race. I could not resist going back to the history books again, and have written a rebuttal (if you may) to our doubting friend. I have used several significant military sources, all with proven credibility, and other verified texts in constructing the below article. If, however, some members feel I might have overstepped the mark then please inform me. 'Strength down to half but good news! Each one of us has now two rifles.' -Dispatch from the battle at Saraghari, 1897 A.D. (1) Leonidas and his 300 Spartans established a new and unique military doctrine at Thermopylae. Named after the locus of their last stand, the Thermopylean conflict is a sporadic occurrence in military pragmatism. Fundamentally it pits a much superior offence against an inferior defense (although anomalies exist). Leonidas and his 300 men themselves faced a much superior force of 100-150,000 Persians during their last stand. (2) Their main aim was to detract or delay the foe until a much poignant rival force could be collated from mainland Greece. In this they succeeded, although by forfeiting their own lives. A step-by-step surgical analysis of their strategy inaugurates the following: -The defense will often be an archetypal last stand. Its constituents will be foolhardy in the defense of their aims, but not to the extent of heedlessness. -The offence will be forced to blunt it's initial thrust, or establish a new stratagem, as the defense will occupy a much better strategically placed locus. At Thermopylae Leonidas placed his men in a narrow passage. The Persians were forced to re-vamp their initial tactic and faced a Spartan picket bristling to the teeth. -The offence will be forced to utilize a tidal technique, although this is not necessary. A well ensconced, and established defense, cannot be attacked with a straight-forward march and confront technique. Often attrition will have to be adopted as a principle Modus operandi, and the defense will be assaulted by different companies in a repetitive fashion. -The foremost aim of the defense is to either buy time for reinforcements or a collation of forces on an unprecedented scale. If it succeeds in this, despite forfeiting itself, it has succeeded in it's designs and desires. -Technological, geographical, intelligence and disciplinary ingenuity all play a pivotal role in a Thermopylean conflict. If possessed by the defense, then a plausible modicum of success is ensured although to what extent is determined by it's own subsequent conduct in the engagement itself. These doctrines were well established in the mind of Lt. Col John Haughton, of the 36th Sikhs, as he marched towards fort Lockhart in the Samana ranges of the Hindu Khush. An avid veteran of Afghani warfare his mission was clear. To neutralize any plausible ally of Czarist Russia, in the North-West Frontier, via utilizing several companies of his battalion efficiently and fluidly. His forward base was to be at Fort Lockhart, neighbored by it's sibling Fort Gulistan in the present day North-Western Frontier. Initial intelligence briefings indicated that local Islamic leaders had been whipping up a pandemonium in the regional Afghani Afridi and Orakzai tribesmen. Haughton ordered his officers to be on their guard whilst simultaneously dispatching a small task-force towards Saraghari. The latter was a military outpost, constructed for helicographic contact between Lockhart and Gulistan. Despite their immediate vicinity, both forts were separated by rugged and mountainous terrain and were not immune to elemental disruption. The helicograph became a pivotal tool for keeping both in contact, a fact which did not escape Afghani watchers. On September 3rd, 1897 A.D., 5,000 Orakazai horsemen attacked Gulistan. The 130 Sikhs, occupying the fort, under Maj. C.H. Desvoeux and Lt. A.K. Blair offered exceptional resistance forcing the Orakazais to retreat. (3) Five days later a more substantial force of tribesmen returned. Two days later they were forced to retreat via Haughton himself, who arrived with 150 Sikhs from Lockhart. (4) Realizing that Saraghari might be a potential target, Haughton reinforced the communications outpost until at full strength it possessed one NCO and 20 OR's (other ranks). The ingenuity of the tribesmen was to however obfuscate him soon, and thrust him into dire straits. On 12th September, the 19 year oldhelicograph operator, Gurmukh Singh, reported a mass movement towards the outpost, to his superior Havildar Ishar Singh. Both men ascended to a higher platform and attempted to analyze the situation. The Havildar finally gauged that it was potent sign of war. Waves upon waves of Afridi and Orakzai tribesmen were marching towards Saraghari. Calmly ordering Gurmukh Singh to inform Haughton and request reinforcements, Ishar Singh prepared to be besieged. Haughton's reply has not been properly established. Two conflicting versions have been put into play. The initial states that he sent a reliving force towards Ishar Singh but it encountered marauding tribesmen, whereas another states that his resources were stretched. The former seems more likely. Under the aegis of Gul Badshah, the tribesmen were striving to conquer Gulistan. (5) The latter would have been a mass improbability if Saraghari had been reinforced by Lockhart. Thus it seems Haughton's substantiated refusal was justified not by a lack of manpower, but by a stringent blockading of his passage towards Ishar Singh. Ultimately, whatever the vindication Ishar Singh found himself solely confronting a murderous horde of blood thirsty tribesmen. Whilst Havildar Singh called a Chinese Parliament* and attempted to form a course of action, Gurmukh Singh repeatedly cast up to date minutes to Haughton. At 9.00 am he signaled the arrival of Afridis and Orakzais. Subsequently battle was joined. The 20 men under Ishar Singh refused to surrender to the foe. The ancestors of the latter had indulged in religious bigotry, and rapine on their sacrosanct land of Punjab. Their own ancestors had refused to give or take any quarter from them, and they too wanted to emulate this valorous tradition. By the time the first shot had been fired, all 21 men inside the post had determined to die defending their mission. The location of Saraghari prevented Gul Badshah from employing the tried and tested tactic of foolhardy charges. He was forced to adopt attrition as a means of achieving his goal. Organizing his men in batches of 150-180 companies (6) he dispatched them towards the communications post. The Havildar meanwhile had been witnessing these proceedings and gauged the inferiority of the tribal artillery. Armed with the newest Martini-Henry rifle, effective up to 600 yards, the 21 besieged waited until the tribal waves were in range and then fired. (7) Their murderous volley repeatedly dwindled the attackers until finally, before midday, Gul Badshah himself came to the fore. An astute negotiator, Badshah brought his entire skill set to the fore. He argued with Ishar Singh that resistance was futile and the deaths of his 20 men would achieve nothing. If all 21 emerged from the fort then he would let them leave unharmed, whilst Haughton would vindicate them due to the numerical foe they faced. Both Singh, and he, were leaders of men and thus knew the intricacies of the battlefield and leadership. The aphorism live to fight another day would serve them both well. Singh, with an emphasized candor, rebutted his offer word for word and a resigned Badshah summarily left. The battle then recommenced. Haughton meanwhile was attempting to gauge the numerical superiority of Badshah. Along with his men, veterans of earlier Afghan campaigns, he identified 14 religious ensigns. Bringing his past experience to the fore, he summarily concluded that Ishar Singh faced 10-12,000 tribal's out of which only less than 200 were able to engage the Sikhs at any given time. (8) The unequal locus of Saraghari was too narrow for an en-massed assault, and too open for a lightening skirmish. Ishar Singh, so far, had utilized the battlefield well but would he be able to hold out until a much superior relief arrived? The fate of Gulistan, and neighboring British protectorates, was no longer in his (Haughton's) hands. Only time would tell if a single NCO, and his 21 men, proved successful or not. Gurmukh Singh continually kept on relaying up-to-date briefings to Lockhart. By now more than 3-4 hours had elapsed since first contact and the 21 Sikhs had eaten no food or drunk water. They had fought off two assaults and suffered two casualties. Still, they continued to operate like clockwork fixedly targeting the offenders and either forcing them to retreat or killing them. Their own numbers were also beginning to dwindle. Bhagwan Singh was the first to be killed thus reducing the strength of the defenders to 20. Ammunition was also beginning to run out. Gurmukh Singh signaled to Haughton, asking for more ammunition, the Lt. Col attempted to disperse the masses swirling on the Lockhart-Saraghari rout with no success. He signaled back his inability. (9) By now Badshah himself was in desperate straits. Saraghari's location made his favored stratagem of a massed charge obsolete. The defenders were not willing to surrender, and his remaining numbers were becoming swiftly disgruntled as more time elapsed since the initial engagement. Despite breaching two pickets, the communication post still stood defiantly. Discipline was lacking among his men, who preferred the commands of different leaders simultaneously, and moral was low. Then, he spied a chance at victory. Sending his non-fighters to the scrub bordering the outpost, he had them set it on fire thus blinding the defenders (who, by now, it is believed had only less then eight men). He then sent two men to make a breach on the defender's wild side. Haughton, and his men, watched with increasing trepidation as the blinded defenders attempted to put out what they perceived as being an internal fire. This allowed several tribesmen to make a breach and enter the outpost. (10) With misery the Lt. Col watched as Ishar Singh took a last minute decision to continue fighting. Via Gurmukh Singh's relays, Haughton learnt of the Havildar's final decision. Ishar Singh ordered his men to fall back to the outpost's inner layer, whilst taking a bayonet and jumping into the mass of the bloodthirsty foe himself. In fierce hand-to-hand fighting he was wounded several times before finally being killed. His action, and sacrifice, allowed Gurmukh Singh enough time to relay to Haughton that the stampede which the defender's now faced itself was constrained by the outpost's size. Ultimately the inner layer itself was breached. The remaining Sikhs fought back with intense gusto until their last breath in an emulation of their Havildar. The 19 year old Gurmukh Singh, then himself jumped into the fray. According to Haughton, he signaled a request to enjoin the fray. The Lt. Col granted him his last desire with a heavy heart. (11) Saraghari had finally fallen. It is not known what subsequent course Badshah took next. His men, it seems, were mutinous and wanted to rest. His initial incentive had been to seize Gulistan but he had failed in this respect. Paramount discipline, and an efficient chain of command, was also lacking among his men. They preferred the commands of several different tribal chieftains at a time. Thus he was forced to give in and wait. By the next day however he found himself besieged. A potent relief force had been collated and attacked the resting tribesmen on the night of the 13th. Clockwork discipline again played a part, and Badshah was routed. Thus ended the Afghani attempt at conquering Gulistan. Havildar Ishar Singh, and his men, had succeeded in their mission. An Analysis. Despite more than a century elapsing since the battle of Saraghari, it is still being passionately debated in academic and military circles. The below points are often raised whenever the battle is studied: 1.) Did the Afghans gain a Phyrric victory? 2.) What was their ultimate goal? 3.) Is it possible for 21 men to face an onslaught by 10,000 men? 4.) What allowed Ishar Singh to hold out for the better part of a day? 5.) How accurate is Haughton's initial assessment of 10-12,000 attackers? 6.) How many casualties were incurred by the tribesmen on the 12th and the 14th? A.1.) Did the Afghans gain a Phyrric victory? A Phyrric victory is a victory gained at such a cost that any subsequent actions/courses are rendered obsolete by the reduction in the victor's forces. The Afghani incentive was to conquer Gulistan. They did not succeed thus a Phyrric victory is out of the question as they cannot be deemed as being the victors at Saraghari. A.2.) What was their ultimate goal? Gulistan, but what they intended to do subsequently is a mystery. Most historians promulgate that after Gulistan, Lockhart would have been the second target. Again, this might or might not be related to the factual truth. The swiftness with which Gul Badshah lead his men indicates that either he wanted to pursue a Fabian strategy, i.e. collate resources and men until they outnumbered Lockhart and thus force Haughton into submission; or launch a massed strike against it as well. A.3.) Is it possible for 21 men to face an onslaught by 10,000 men? Military history does not propose 'what happened' but 'what could, should or would have happened.' If we surgically analyze Saraghari we will see several different elements supporting the Sikhs. 1.) They were well entrenched and experienced soldiers. 2.) They could easily counter any decisive assault due to their location which would have been narrow for 200 men or more. 3.) They occupied higher terrain, thus they were well placed to witness any raid forming and counter it. 4.) They possessed a superior range in firearms. Their Henry Martini rifle reached up to 600 yards, thus giving them a longer reach. 5.) One has to remember that Haughton estimated there to be 10-12,000 attackers based on the banners and tactics of the tribesmen. How many actually attacked the outpost at a single time (the tidal wave theory) has not been established. Contemporaneous Afghani sources state 150-180, although these would probably have dwindled as the attackers reached the terrain on which Saraghari was situated. One also has to remember that the classic Charge-Trench ideologue did not exist at Saraghari. This was not Beersheba where horsemen charged trenches. Saraghari was a well fortified structure thus blunting the Afghani offensive. A.4.) What allowed Ishar Singh to hold out for the better part of a day? An able NCO, Singh was already a prior veteran of Afghanistan. Subsequently he was also well versed in military strategy and adaptive, essential traits which assist all military leaders. He utilized the high vantage of Saraghari, the instruments at his disposal and the training of his men. High Vantage- This would have considerably reduced the number of foes approaching, slowed their ascent and also given him time for a counter-offensive. Instruments at his disposal- The Martini-Henry rifle possessed an accurate range of 600 yards (548.64 m). Ishar Singh is said to have ordered 'fire'when the tribesmen passed the 300 yard (274.32 m) mark. Although the tribesmen possessed their own arsenal, this was not as advanced as the Sikh rifles. Combined with the clockwork precision of his men, the superior Martini would have played a cardinal role in Singh's strategy which was to delay the foe. Training of men- Via Gurmukh Singh's briefings, it has been theorized that Ishar Singh utilized a clockwork plan of action. This called for equal teams of soldiers firing upon the charging foe. Given his own prominence in the affair he would have divided his 20 men team (Gurmukh Singh was signalling) into either 4 lots of five or 5 lots of 4. The former would have seen three teams firing from their own respective positions in the outpost. One team would then have been replaced by another fresher team, while it reloaded and reinforced another. The fourth relieving team would have also reinforced another simultaneously, thus ensuring a rapidity in the assaulting fire. Via the 5 lots of 4 a similar pattern would have emerged although it's effectiveness is debatable. A.5.) How accurate is Haughton's initial assessment of 10-12,000 attackers? Valor aside, the British military was not as obdurate as is cast. It rapidly adapted to the foe's tactics and learnt lessons from near defeats and victories on the battlefield. The First and Second Anglo-Afghan Wars (ranging from 1839-1880 A.D.) had taught it several new principles of Afghani warfare. Haughton himself, a Lt. Col, would have engaged in the Second Anglo-Afghan war and thus observed the proceedings. Afghani tribes, and even military leaders, preferred an en-mass cavalry charge against strategic locations. The psychological effect of seeing a mass body of horsemen, bearing down upon them, would have petrified many opposing forces into surrender. Afghani cavalry tactics often called for 150 men or more (12) to line up in equal lines and charge the foe. Not only did this provide momentum but also immediate relief if required. Whilst confronting such a horde the British would often dismount and then engage. The massed attacks on the 3rd of September, and afterwards, corroborate Haughton's estimates. On the aforementioned date it was estimated that at least 5,000 tribesmen, or upwards, attacked Lockhart. Whilst engaging forts, Badshah would have been well aware of the need of continuous momentum, and rejuvenated men. Cast as crude, his strategy, if looked at from a new light makes profound sense. He would have utilized the tidal theory. 10,000 men divided into 150 companies would have given him 66-67 attacking formations. Their large number would have allowed for continuous momentum, replacement of men and also simultaneous action if they would have been confronted by a joint task force from both Gulistan and Lockhart. He would have reinforced his initial 5,000 with double that number to be on the safe side. A.6.) How many casualties were incurred by the tribesmen on the 12th and the 14th? Upon capturing the field, the relieving force accounted 450 bodies. The latter were the tribesmen who had been killed on the 12th,13th and 14th. Gul Badshah would initially state that Ishar Singh and his men killed 150 of his tribesmen although he would soon change the number to 180. (13) British estimates varied. Given that the attacker often forfeits more men then the defender (14), it can safely be said that at least 30-40% of the casualties would plausibly have been inflicted by Singh and his men. The British estimated there to be at least twice as many wounded tribesmen. The latter never ventured to release the official number of their dead and wounded given their ironic defeat. Upon learning of their gallantry, the British government gloriously applauded the actions of the 21 deceased at Saraghari. Entranced by their valor Queen Victoria awarded each of the Sikhs the Indian order of Merit (the sub-continent's then highest military honor) and allotted a pension and land grant for their next of kin. Presently the battle has been reduced to military textbooks, but it's legend still abounds. These 21 men engraved an unique niche in historicity along with Leonidas and the countless others who engaged in a Thermopylean battle. In death they serve as an inspiration beacon, forever proclaiming 'duty onto death!' The deceased: Havildar Ishar Singh (regimental number 165). Naik Lal Singh (332). Lance Naik Chanda Singh (546). Sepoy Sundar Singh (1321). Sepoy Ram Singh (287). Sepoy Uttar Singh (492). Sepoy Sahib Singh (182). Sepoy Hira Singh (359). Sepoy Daya Singh (687). Sepoy Jivan Singh (760). Sepoy Bhola Singh (791). Sepoy Narayan Singh (834). Sepoy Gurmukh Singh (814). Sepoy Jivan Singh (871). Sepoy Gurmukh Singh (1733). Sepoy Ram Singh (163). Sepoy Bhagwan Singh (1257). Sepoy Bhagwan Singh (1265). Sepoy Buta Singh (1556). Sepoy Jivan Singh (1651). Sepoy Nand Singh (1221). Sources and footnotes: *Chinese Parliament- A military congregation where rank is not customary or obligatory. Any decision manifested is entirely democratic. 1.) Accessed from http://magellanclubforkids.com/2012/09/20/against-all-odds/ 2.) Cassin S.J; (1977) The Greek and Persian Wars 500-323 B.C. Osprey publishers, pg. 11. It is customary to acknowledge that whereas modern scholars give this figure, contemporaneous scholars estimated at least a million Persian soldiers to be present. 3.) Sidhu S.D, Virdi A; The Battle of Saraghari, The Last Stand of the 36th Sikh Regiment. Gyan Khand Media, India, pg. 3. 4.) ibid, pg. 3. 5.) ibid, pg. 4. 6.) Badsey S; (2008) Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry, 1880-1918, Barnes and Nobles, UK, pg. 150. Additionally see 3,000 years of Warfare for a profound exegesis of Attrition. 7.) Accessed from http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/History/First150/238-Defending-Saragarhi.html 8.) Accessed from http://defenceforumindia.com/forum/military-history/12117-battle-saragarhi-21-sikhs-versus-10-000-pathans.html 9.) Accessed from http://khalsa-raaj.blogspot.co.nz/2011/09/battle-of-saraghari.html 10.) Accessed from http://swordarm.in/?page_id=21 11.) Accessed from http://magellanclubforkids.com/2012/09/20/against-all-odds/ 12.) Badsey S; (2008) Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry, 1880-1918, Barnes and Nobles, UK, pg. 150. 13.) Maj. Gen. Jaswant Singh Letter to H.M. Queen Elizabeth II Institute of Sikh Studies (1999). 14.) Singh; A (2010) The Last Sunset, Roli Publishing a division of Lotus Books. See sub-section titled First-Anglo Sikh War. http://tisarpanth.blogspot.co.nz/2014/08/21.html?view=magazine The question and answer component was done with the aid of a military historian. If you possess any questions on it then please post them below, and I will forward them to him. Thank you.